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The Egyptian Deities

     Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer). The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.


     Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a sizable portion of the Near East, after which it entered a period of slow decline. During the course of its history Egypt was invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, the Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, the Achaemenid Persians, and the Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great. The Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed in the aftermath of Alexander's death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.


     The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.


     The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that supported the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known planked boats, Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty, made with the Hittites. Ancient Egypt has left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travelers and writers for centuries. A new-found respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeans and Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptian civilization and a greater appreciation of its cultural legacy.

     Now that we have a little background of where they come from, let's begin.

God of Winds and Creation


  • Animals: Rams, Cattle, Goose, Snakes, and Lions

  • Colors: Blue, Green, and White

  • Elements: Air

  • Festivals/Holidays: Opet Festival (second month of the season of Akhet, the Flooding of the Nile)

  • Food: Water, Milk, Bread, Wine

  • Herbs: Anis, Basil, Oregano, and Sage

  • Incense: Rose

  • Magical Attributes: Air, Creation, Fertility, Love, Secrets

  • Metal: Gold

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Incense, Oils, Food, Wine, Water, Clothes, and any of the several Perfumes named in his honor.

  • Planet: Sun and Jupiter

  • Plants:

  • Sabbats: Beltane

  • Stones: Lapis Lazuli

  • Symbols: Two Vertical Plumes, Ram-Headed Sphinx, and Was Scepter.

  • Trees:


     Amun (Imn, Amon, Amen) is the patron God of Thebes, a god of the wind and King of the Gods. Initially a local God of Thebes, with Amaunet he represented the primordial concept or element of air or invisibility. Later he was to become the Patron God of Thebes, replacing Monthu. During the rule of Ahmose, he fused with the sun God Ra to become Amun-Ra. It was thought that Amun created himself and then his surroundings. He is usually depicted in human form, with two plumes on his head and carrying the ankh symbol and the was scepter. He was called upon by those who believed suffering had come about as a result of their own or others wrongdoing. He was also able to calm stormy seas. In the Hymn to Amun-Ra he is described as: "Lord of truth, father of the gods, maker of men, creator of all animals, Lord of things that are, creator of the staff of life."

God of the Dead and Ruler of the Underworld


  • Animals: Dogs and Jackals.

  • Colors: Black

  • Elements: Earth

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Barley, Beer, Bitter Chocolate, Bread, Cool Water, Dates, Duck or Goose meat, Figs, Lentils, Millet, Rum, and Spicy Foods.

  • Herbs: Anise Star, Benzoin, Cardamom, Cloves, Frankincense, Myrrh, Rosemary and Salts.

  • Incense: Frankincense and Myrrh.

  • Magical Attributes: Death, Divination, Guards the Dead and Graves, Guide to the Underworld, Magic, Mummification, and Protects Children.

  • Metal:

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Beer, Bitter Chocolate (the more bitter the better), Bread, Cypress Oil, Honor the Dead and your Ancestors, and Strong Incense.

  • Planet: Pluto

  • Plants:

  • Sabbat: Litha

  • Stones: Carnelian and Hematite.

  • Symbols: The Crook and a 'Was' Scepter, Flail, Imiut Fetish, and Jackal.

  • Trees: Cypress


     Anubis is the Greek name of the god of death, mummification, embalming, the afterlife, cemeteries, tombs, and the Underworld, in ancient Egyptian religion, usually depicted as a canine or a man with a canine head. Archaeologists have identified Anubis's sacred animal as an Egyptian Canid, the African golden wolf. The African wolf was formerly called the "African golden jackal", until a 2015 genetic analysis updated the taxonomy and the common name for the species. As a result, Anubis is often referred to as having a "jackal" head, but this "jackal" is now more properly called a "wolf".


     Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumed different roles in various contexts. Depicted as a protector of graves as early as the First Dynasty (c. 3100 – c. 2890 BC), Anubis was also an embalmer. By the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055 – 1650 BC) he was replaced by Osiris in his role as lord of the underworld. One of his prominent roles was as a god who ushered souls into the afterlife. He attended the weighing scale during the "Weighing of the Heart," in which it was determined whether a soul would be allowed to enter the realm of the dead. Despite being one of the most ancient and "one of the most frequently depicted and mentioned gods" in the Egyptian pantheon, Anubis played almost no role in Egyptian myths.


     Anubis was depicted in black, a color that symbolized regeneration, life, the soil of the Nile River, and the discoloration of the corpse after embalming. Anubis is associated with his brother Wepwawet, another Egyptian god portrayed with a dog's head or in canine form, but with grey or white fur. Historians assume that the two figures were eventually combined. Anubis' female counterpart is Anput. His daughter is the serpent goddess Kebechet.

Warrior Cat Goddess of Fertility, Childbirth, and Motherhood


  • Animals: Black Panthers and Cats.

  • Colors: Green and Red.

  • Festivals/Holidays: The Feasts of Drunkenness

  • Food: Bread, Chocolate, Cider, Cookies, Eggs, Honey, Milk, Raw or Cooked Meat, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Cannabis, Catnip, Cinnamon, and Vervain.

  • Incense: Cinnamon, Frankincense, Musk, Myrrh, and Sandalwood.

  • Magical Attributes: Beauty, Childbirth, Dance, Divination, Fertility, Joy, Motherhood, Music, Pleasure, Protection, and Sexuality.

  • Metal: Gold and Silver.

  • Musical Instrument: Sistrum

  • Offerings: Catnip, Cream, and Perfumes.

  • Planet: Moon and Sun.

  • Plants:

  • Sabbats: Ostara and Samhain.

  • Stones: Agate, Cat’s Eye, Jasper, Lapis Lazuli Sunstone, and Tiger’s Eye.

  • Symbols: Ankh, Cat, Kittens, Lioness, Sistrum, and Papyrus Wand.

  • Trees:


     Egyptian Cat Goddess Bastet is playful in nature and fiercely protective. Bastet was originally a fierce lioness warrior goddess of the sun worshiped throughout most of ancient Egyptian history, but later she was changed into the cat goddess that is familiar today, becoming Bastet. She then was depicted as the daughter of Ra and Isis, and the consort of Ptah, with whom she had a son Maahes. As protector of Lower Egypt, she was seen as defender of the king, and consequently of the sun god, Ra. Along with other deities such as Hathor, Sekhmet, and Isis, Bastet was associated with the Eye of Ra.


     By day Bastet would ride with her father, the Sun God Ra, protecting him from his enemies as his boat pulled the Sun across the sky. At night, when Ra was defenseless, Bastet would transform into a cat and guard Ra from Apophis the serpent who was her father's greatest enemy. Bastet is the patron Goddess of cats who were worshiped as incarnations of the Goddess. She is associated with all things pleasurable, such as music, dance, perfumes, and of all things feminine such as childbirth and motherhood. Bastet was also depicted as the goddess of protection against contagious diseases and evil spirits. Statues of Bastet depict her as a shapely woman with the head of a cat. She is sometimes seen surrounded by kittens and wearing a green or blue dress. Sometimes she is shown holding a sistrum, a rattle used as a musical instrument in ancient times. In her myths, she takes on three forms - a woman, a half-cat, and a fully feline form.


     A shrine was built in Baubastis the then capital of Egypt and was supposedly one of the most beautiful temples in the world. The temple grounds had a cat cemetery where the mummified remains of her beloved cats were entombed. Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian who traveled in Egypt in the fifth century BCE, describes Bastet's temple at some length: “Save for the entrance, it stands on an island; two separate channels approach it from the Nile, and after coming up to the entry of the temple, they run round it on opposite sides; each of them a hundred feet wide, and overshadowed by trees. The temple is in the midst of the city, the whole circuit of which commands a view down into it; for the city's level has been raised, but that of the temple has been left as it was from the first, so that it can be seen into from without. A stone wall, carved with figures, runs round it; within is a grove of very tall trees growing round a great shrine, wherein is the image of the goddess; the temple is a square, each side measuring a furlong. A road, paved with stone, of about three furlongs' length leads to the entrance, running eastward through the market place, towards the temple of Hermes; this road is about 400 feet wide, and bordered by trees reaching to heaven.”  

Cow-Goddess of the Sky, Fertility, Love, Beauty, and Music


  • Animals: Cats, Cattle, Doves, Gazelle, Hippos, Lions, Lynx, Swans, Snakes, and Vultures.

  • Colors: Green, Pink, Red, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Festival of Drunkenness

  • Food: Ale, Dates, Figs, Grapes, Milk, and Teas.

  • Herbs: Cardamom, Goldenrod, Hibiscus, Lavender, and Myrrh.

  • Incense: Benzoin, Myrtle, Red Sandal, Rose, and Sandalwood.

  • Magical Attributes: Alcohol, Birth, Dance, Death, Fertility, Intoxication, Joy, Love, Magic, Music, Perfume, Pleasure, and Sex.

  • Metal: Copper

  • Musical Instrument: Sistrum

  • Offerings: Alcohol, Jewelry, Perfume, Scarabs, Statues or Pictures of Cats & Cows, and Two Mirrors.

  • Planet: Moon

  • Plants: Myrtle, Papyrus, and Rose.

  • Sabbats: Mabon

  • Stones: Emerald, Malachite, and Turquoise.

  • Symbols: Cow, Mirror, and Sistrum.

  • Trees: Date Palm, Sycamore


     Hathor was worshiped by Royalty and common people alike in whose tombs she is depicted as "Mistress of the West" welcoming the dead into the next life. Hathor was the embodiment of the Milky Way and was called the Celestial Cow. As a provider of milk, and due to cows careful tending of their calves, the cow was a universal symbol of motherhood. In art, Hathor was often depicted as a golden cow or as a woman with the ears of a cow and a headdress of horns holding the sun-disc, which represented Ra. The Milky Way spilled from her breasts, and she was the Celestial Waterway upon which the Sun God and the King sailed. This association linked Her to the flooding of the Nile and the breaking of the waters before birth.


     Hathor is the daughter of Ra the Sun God and Nut the Sky Goddess. Ra sent Hathor, in the form of an All Seeing Eye, to watch over mankind. When angered Hathor could become destructive and may be the origin of the Evil Eye. The Ankh may also have originated from Hathor’s eye. In the Book of the Dead, Hathor is depicted as seven young women whose role is to determine the destiny of a child at birth. One by one they would announce the aspects of the child’s fate. Hathor was also connected to Ba, an aspect of the soul, her role was to greet the newly dead as they began their journey to the afterlife. Hathor’s Mirror is made of polished copper or bronze with a wooden or bone handle in the shape of the Goddess. The polished mirror resembles the shape of a Sun Disc, the symbol that represents Hathor. Insert sun disc when looking into the mirror your individual power is reflected on one side while the thoughts and energies of others are reflected on the other. The mirror can be used to ward off baneful energies by reflecting the energy back to the attacker.

God of War, Sky, and Protection


  • Animals: Falcon and  Hawks.

  • Colors: Red and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Olives and Raw Meat.

  • Herbs: Aloe Vera, Anise, 

  • Incense: Eucalyptus, Frankincense, 

  • Magical Attributes: Hunting, Patron God, Protection, Sovereignty, Sky, and War.

  • Metal: Brass and Gold.

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Images of the Eye of Horus, Raw Meat

  • Planet: The Moon and Sun.

  • Plants: Iris and Lotus.

  • Sabbats: 

  • Stones: Star Sapphire

  • Symbols: Wadjet Eye

  • Trees: Acacia and Olive.


     Horus, an Egyptian god of the sky, of war, and protection, is one of the best-known and possibly most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon. His image appears in ancient Egyptian artwork, tomb paintings, and the Book of the Dead. Keep in mind that Horus, as one of the most complex and oldest Egyptian deities, took many different forms throughout history. Like many Egyptian gods, he underwent numerous transformations as the Egyptian culture evolved, and so there is no way for us to cover each aspect of Horus in all of his different forms throughout time. Horus is believed to have originated in Upper Egypt around 3100 b.c.e., and was associated with the pharaohs and kings. Eventually, the dynasties of the pharaohs claimed to be direct descendants of Horus himself, creating the connection of royalty to the divine. Although in early incarnations he is assigned the role of sibling to Isis and Osiris, Horus later is described by some cults as the son of Isis following the death of Osiris.

     In Egyptian myth and legend, Horus is one of the most important deities of the pantheon. Following the death of Osiris, at the hands of the god Set, Isis conceived a son, Horus. With a bit of help from some other goddesses, including Hathor, Isis raised Horus until he was old enough to challenge Set. Horus and Set went before the sun god, Ra, and pleaded their cases as to who was to be made king. Ra found in favor of Horus, thanks in no small part to Set’s history of treachery, and declared Horus to be the king. As a sky god, the eyes of Horus were steeped in magic and power. His right eye is associated with the moon, and his left with the sun. The Eye of Horus appears frequently in Egyptian artwork. Some Egyptologists see the battle between Set and Horus as representative of the struggles between Upper and Lower Egypt. Horus was more popular in the south and Set in the north. Horus’ defeat of Set may symbolize the unification of the two halves of Egypt. In addition to his associations with the sky, Horus was seen as a deity of war and the hunt. As a protector of the royal families who claimed divine ancestry, he is associated with battles by kings to maintain the monarchy.

Goddess of Magic, Motherhood, and Fertility


  • Animals: Cows, Crocodiles, Kites, Scorpions, Snakes, and Swallows.

  • Colors: Black, Blue, Emerald, Silver, Turquoise, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Figs, Honey, and Milk.

  • Herbs: Vervain

  • Incense: Cedar, Civet, Dragons Blood, Musk, Myrrh, Narcissus, and Onycha.

  • Magical Attributes: Death, Fertility, Health, Magic, Motherhood, Protection for Sailors, Resurrection, and Sovereignty.

  • Metal: Gold

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Candles, Flowers, Honey, Incense, and Milk.

  • Planet: Moon and Venus.

  • Plants:

  • Sabbats: Imbolc

  • Stones: Bloodstone

  • Symbols: An Empty Throne, Disc, and Horns.

  • Trees: Fig, Myrrh, and Sycamore.


      Isis may be the most venerated goddess on Earth. Venerated in Egypt for thousands of years, her worship eventually spread from East Africa throughout Western Asia and Europe as far as England's Thames River.

     Isis is so multifaceted that the Greeks identified her with Aphrodite, Artemis, Demeter, and Persephone. The myth of Isis and Osiris, her beloved twin brother/soul mate, is among the most beloved of all romantic tragedies. Isis is the lady of many names and many forms. She is the beautiful young, privileged princess and the grieving, poverty-stricken widow dressed in rags. She is the greatest sorceress on Earth, in possession of the Ineffable Name, the most powerful word in creation and the poverty-stricken single mother in hiding, forced to beg to feed herself and her son. Isis may be the unnamed narrator of the Gnostic poem, “Thunder, Perfect Mind.”

     Isis is the most compassionate of deities because she has lived the life of an oppressed woman, and she is the most powerful, because as Mistress of Magic, she knows all and can do all. Isis can resurrect the dead and can bestow the gift of fertility. She heals the ailing and protects travelers at sea. There is no miracle that she cannot perform.


     Isis was a relatively late goddess to appear in Egypt, first emerging in the Nile Delta but rapidly became one of the most beloved. Like Hathor, with whom she was identified, Isis is a cow-goddess. Her devotees traditionally refrain from consuming beef.


     Veneration of Isis was officially introduced to Rome in 86 BCE, where she became extremely popular because, unlike other religions, her cult was open to all, including women and slaves. Her spiritual tradition developed a bad reputation in conservative Rome, because of its alleged licentiousness, and was legally suppressed at least five times between 59 and 48 BCE.

     Even after abolition of Paganism, veneration of Isis was extremely persistent. Her last official temple on the southern Egyptian island of Philae survived until 537 CE, when Narses, Commander of Emperor Justinian’s Egyptian troops, ordered it shut. Votive statues of Isis, Osiris, and Min were confiscated and sent to Constantinople. Temple clergy was imprisoned. The walls of the shrine, previously adorned with images, were whitewashed, and the temple was converted to a Christian church.


     Although Isis is mainly identified with ancient Egypt, the Romans carried her veneration throughout Europe. She became extremely popular in Gaul and was for a substantial period the preeminent goddess of Paris. Paris was considered her city as Lyon belonged to Kybele. Isis was among the last Pagan deities to be actively venerated, and she was perceived as a primary competitor by early Christians.

Goddess who Personified the Order and Balance of the Universe


  • Animals: Ostriches and Vultures.

  • Colors: Black, Purple, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food:

  • Herbs: Aloe and Orris root.

  • Incense: Frankincense and Rose.

  • Magical Attributes: Balance, Justice, Karmic Balance, Order, Seasons, and Stars.

  • Metal: Platinum

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Beer, Golden Scale, Solar Disk’s, White Feathers, and Wine.
    Planet: Mercury

  • Plants: Papyrus

  • Sabbats: Yule

  • Stones: Amethyst, Jade, and Turquoise.

  • Symbols: Ankh, Ostrich Feather, and Was Scepter.

  • Trees:


     Maat or Maʽat refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice. Maat was also the goddess who personified these concepts, and regulated the stars, seasons, and the actions of mortals and the deities who had brought order from chaos at the moment of creation. Her ideological opposite was Isfet (Egyptian jzft), meaning injustice, chaos, violence or to do evil.

     Maat represents the ethical and moral principle that every Egyptian citizen was expected to follow throughout their daily lives. They were expected to act with honor and truth in matters that involve family, the community, the nation, the environment, and the gods. Maat as a principle was formed to meet the complex needs of the emergent Egyptian state that embraced diverse peoples with conflicting interests. The development of such rules sought to avert chaos and it became the basis of Egyptian law. From an early period the king would describe himself as the "Lord of Maat" who decreed with his mouth the Maat he conceived in his heart. The significance of Maat developed to the point that it embraced all aspects of existence, including the basic equilibrium of the universe, the relationship between constituent parts, the cycle of the seasons, heavenly movements, religious observations and fair dealings, honesty, and truthfulness in social interactions. The ancient Egyptians had a deep conviction of an underlying holiness and unity within the universe. Cosmic harmony was achieved by correct public and ritual life. Any disturbance in cosmic harmony could have consequences for the individual as well as the state. An impious king could bring about famine, and blasphemy could bring blindness to an individual. In opposition to the right order expressed in the concept of Maat is the concept of Isfet: chaos, lies and violence.


     In addition to the importance of the Maat, several other principles within ancient Egyptian law were essential, including an adherence to tradition as opposed to change, the importance of rhetorical skill, and the significance of achieving impartiality and "righteous action". In one Middle Kingdom (2062 to 1664 BCE) text, the creator declares "I made every man like his fellow". Maat called the rich to help the less fortunate rather than exploit them, echoed in tomb declarations: "I have given bread to the hungry and clothed the naked" and "I was a husband to the widow and father to the orphan". To the Egyptian mind, Maat bound all things together in an indestructible unity: the universe, the natural world, the state, and the individual were all seen as parts of the wider order generated by Maat.

Goddess of Creation, War, and Hunting


  • Animals: Bees, Crocodiles, and Snakes.

  • Colors: Green and Red.

  • Festivals/Holidays: The Festival of Neith

  • Food:

  • Herbs: Flax

  • Incense: Frankincense and Wisteria.

  • Magical Attributes: Creation, Childbirth, Domestic Arts, Hunting, Patron God, Protection, War, Water, Weapons, and Weaving.

  • Metal: Gold

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Arrow Heads and Water.

  • Planet:

  • Plants: Papyrus

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Bloodstone and Diamond.

  • Symbols: Ankh, Crossed Arrows, Bow, Loom, Mummy Cloth, Shield, Shuttle, and Weavers.

  • Trees: Acacia


     The inscription on Neith’s temple in Sais in the Nile Delta (now modern Sa el-Hagar) read:

I am all that has been, that is and that will be

No mortal has yet been able to lift the veil that covers me


     Neith, the First One, primordial goddess, was never born but always existed. Alternatively she is completely self-generated. Neith traveled from the deserts and oases of Libya to emerge as among the greatest of Egyptian goddesses. In one Egyptian creation myth, Neith brought forth Ra, the sun. Then she invented the shuttle and loom, put the sky on her loom, and wove the world into existence. Neith, the first to give birth, invented weaving. Her name may derive from a word for “to weave” or “to knit.”


     Neith is a goddess of hunting. She presides over crafts of all kinds, including witchcraft and warcraft. Amuletic weapons placed in the tomb to protect the deceased from evil spirits were consecrated to Neith. She is the judge of the Egyptian deities. After eighty years, when the lawsuit between Horus and Set in the Court of Deities was still not resolved, Neith was called in to render a decision to which all would defer. (She favored Horus but compensated Set. Neith has historically had a close, positive relationship with Set.)


     Neith was worshipped with Mysteries and lantern processions. She may be venerated independently or together with her son, Sobek. The Greeks identified her with Athena, also identified as originating in Libya. Many consider Athena to be a Greek path of Neith or at least a very closely related spirit.

Goddess of Death, Night, and Lamentation


  • Animals: Bennu Birds, Crows, Falcons, Kites, Snakes, and Vultures.

  • Colors: Black and Red.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Beer, Breads, Fruits, Pastries, Vegetables, Water, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Comfrey

  • Incense: Myrrh

  • Magical Attributes: Darkness, Decay, Death Immortality, Funerals, Insight, Lamentation, Magic, Night, Protection, Rebirth, Sorcery, and Wisdom.

  • Metal: Lead

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Food, Incense, Red Candles, Water and Wine.

  • Planet: Moon

  • Plants: Reeds and Solomon's Seal.

  • Sabbats: Samhain

  • Stones: Jet and Onyx.

  • Symbols: House, Kite, Meaning Temple, and Mummy Wrappings.

  • Trees: Yew


     The Goddess Nephthys represents magic, sorcery, darkness, decay, death, and immortality. She is the sister of Isis, Osiris, and Set, the daughter of Seb and Nut, the wife of Set and the mother of Anubis. Nephthys guards the threshold between life and death. Isis is concerned with the energy of birth, growth, development and the visible while Nephthys represents death, decay, stagnation and the invisible. Isis and Nephthys always appear together in funerary rites representing night and day, life, and death. Nephthys embodies the transitional nature of death, assisting the dead through the different phases of the afterlife. During Egyptian funerary rites Nephthys role was to guard the Canopic Jar which contained the lungs.

Goddess of the Sky and Heavens


  • Animals: Cows, Piglets, and Sows.

  • Colors: Dark Blue

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Blue Flowers, Milk, and Star-shaped Cookies.

  • Herbs:

  • Incense: Musk

  • Magical Attributes: Heavens, Night-time Sky, Sky and Wind Magic.

  • Metal:

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Round Pots, Things with stars on them,

  • Planet:

  • Plants: All Blue Flowers

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Lapis Lazuli and Turquoise.

  • Symbols: Ladder, Large Cow, Sky, and Stars.

  • Trees: Sycamore Tree


     Nut is a daughter of Shu and Tefnut. Her brother and husband is Geb. She had four children–Osiris, Set, Isis, and Neophytes–to which is added Horus in a Graeco-Egyptian version of the myth of Nut and Geb. She is considered one of the oldest deities among the Egyptian pantheon, with her origin being found on the creation story of Heliopolis. She was originally the goddess of the nighttime sky, but eventually became referred to as simply the sky goddess. Her headdress was the hieroglyphic of part of her name, a pot, which may also symbolize the uterus. Mostly depicted in nude human form, Nut was also sometimes depicted in the form of a cow whose great body formed the sky and heavens, a sycamore tree, or as a giant sow, suckling many piglets (representing the stars).

     Nut was the goddess of the sky and all heavenly bodies, a symbol of protecting the dead when they enter the afterlife. According to the Egyptians, during the day, the heavenly bodies—such as the Sun and Moon—would make their way across her body. Then, at dusk, they would be swallowed, pass through her belly during the night, and be reborn at dawn. Nut is also the barrier separating the forces of chaos from the ordered cosmos in the world. She was pictured as a woman arched on her toes and fingertips over the Earth; her body portrayed as a star-filled sky. Nut's fingers and toes were believed to touch the four cardinal points or directions of north, south, east, and west.


     Because of her role in saving Osiris, Nut was seen as a friend and protector of the dead, who appealed to her as a child appeals to its mother: "O my Mother Nut, stretch Yourself over me, that I may be placed among the imperishable stars which are in You, and that I may not die." Nut was thought to draw the dead into her star-filled sky, and refresh them with food and wine: "I am Nut, and I have come so that I may enfold and protect you from all things evil." She was often painted on the inside lid of the sarcophagus, protecting the deceased. The vaults of tombs were often painted dark blue with many stars as a representation of Nut. The Book of the Dead says, "Hail, thou Sycamore Tree of the Goddess Nut! Give me of the water and of the air which is in thee. I embrace that throne which is in Unu, and I keep guard over the Egg of Nekek-ur. It flourisheth, and I flourish; it liveth, and I live; it snuffeth the air, and I snuff the air, I the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, in peace.''

God of Vegetation, Fertility, and the Afterlife


  • Animals: Cats, Cattle, Crocodiles, Geese, and Gorillas.

  • Colors: Black and Green.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Blackberries, Barley, Beer, Bread Coconut, and Dates.

  • Herbs: Iris

  • Incense: Arabic Gum and Frankincense.

  • Magical Attributes: Afterlife, Agriculture, Fertility, Law, Learning, Life Death and Rebirth, Underworld, and Vegetation.

  • Metal:

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Orris oil

  • Planet: Pluto and Sun.

  • Plants: Ivy and Palm.

  • Sabbats: Ostara

  • Stones:

  • Symbols: Crook and  Flail.

  • Trees: Acacia, Date Palm, Tamarisk, and Willow.


     Osiris is the god of fertility, agriculture, the afterlife, the dead, resurrection, life, and vegetation in ancient Egyptian religion. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive atef crown, and holding a symbolic crook and flail. He was one of the first to be associated with the mummy wrap. When his brother, Set, cut him up into pieces after killing him, Isis, his wife, found all the pieces and wrapped his body up. Osiris was at times considered the eldest son of the god Geb and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. Through syncretism with Iah, he is also a god of the Moon.


     Osiris can be considered the brother of Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus the Elder, and father of Horus the Younger. The first evidence of the worship of Osiris was found in the middle of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt (25th century BCE), although it is likely that he was worshiped much earlier; the Khenti-Amentiu epithet dates to at least the First Dynasty, and was also used as a pharaonic title. Most information available on the myths of Osiris is derived from allusions contained in the Pyramid Texts at the end of the Fifth Dynasty, later New Kingdom source documents such as the Shabaka Stone and the Contending of Horus and Seth, and much later, in narrative style from the writings of Greek authors including Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus.


     Osiris was the judge of the dead and the underworld agency that granted all life, including sprouting vegetation and the fertile flooding of the Nile River. He was described as "He Who is Permanently Benign and Youthful" and the "Lord of Silence". The kings of Egypt were associated with Osiris in death – as Osiris rose from the dead so they would be in union with him, and inherit eternal life through a process of imitative magic.


     Through the hope of new life after death, Osiris began to be associated with the cycles observed in nature, in particular vegetation and the annual flooding of the Nile, through his links with the heliacal rising of Orion and Sirius at the start of the new year. Osiris was widely worshipped until the decline of ancient Egyptian religion during the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire.

Creator God


  • Animals: Bulls, Hawks, and Scarab Beetles.

  • Colors: Gold, Green, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Almonds

  • Herbs: Vervain

  • Incense: Lily of the Valley

  • Magical Attributes: Carpenters, Craftsmen, Creation, Metalworking, Patron God, and Sculpture.

  • Metal: Iron

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings:

  • Planet:

  • Plants: Honeysuckle

  • Stones: Azurite

  • Symbols: Bull and Dyed Pillar. He is usually depicted as a man with green skin holding a scepter that combined the Was, Ankh and Djed.

  • Trees: Qabalah Tree of Life


In Egyptian mythology, the deity named Ptah is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of Memphis, he is the spouse of Sekhmet and the father of Nefertum. He was also regarded as the father of the sage Imhotep. The Greeks knew him as the god Hephaestus, and in this form Manetho made him the first king of Egypt.


     Ptah is the creator god par excellence: He is considered the demiurge who existed before all things, and by his willfulness, thought the world. It was first conceived by Thought, and realized by the Word: Ptah conceives the world by the thought of his heart and gives life through the magic of his Word. That which Ptah commanded was created, with which the constituents of nature, fauna, and flora, are contained. He also plays a role in the preservation of the world and the permanence of the royal function.  In the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, the Nubian pharaoh Shabaka would transcribe on a stela known as the Shabaka Stone, an old theological document found in the archives of the library of the temple of the god at Memphis. This document has been known as the Memphite Theology, and shows the god Ptah, the god responsible for the creation of the universe by thought and by the Word.  Ptah is the patron of craftsmanship, metalworking, carpenters, shipbuilders, and sculpture. From the Middle Kingdom onwards, he was one of five major Egyptian gods with Ra, Isis, Osiris and Amun.

God of the Sun


  • Animals: Bulls, Cattle, Hawks, Herons, Rams, and Serpents.

  • Colors: Gold and Pink.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Beef, Beer, Bread, Chicken, Dates, Figs, Oranges, Water, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Saffron

  • Incense: Frankincense, Myrrh, and Olive.

  • Magical Attributes: Creation and Sun.

  • Metal: Gold

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Food, Incense, Solar Disk items, Water, and Wine.

  • Planet: Saturn and Sun.

  • Plants: Lotus and Water Lilly.

  • Sabbats: Litha and Yule.

  • Stones: Goldstone and Lapis Lazuli.

  • Symbols: Sun Disc

  • Trees:


     Ra is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the noon sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, and the underworld. He was the god of the sun, order, kings, and the sky. Ra was portrayed as a falcon and shared characteristics with the sky god Horus. At times the two deities were merged as Ra-Horakhty, "Ra, who is Horus of the Two Horizons". In the New Kingdom, when the god Amun rose to prominence he was fused with Ra into Amun-Ra.


     The cult of the Mnevis bull, an embodiment of Ra, had its center in Heliopolis and there was a formal burial ground for the sacrificed bulls north of the city. All forms of life were believed to have been created by Ra. In some accounts, humans were created from Ra's tears and sweat, hence the Egyptians call themselves the "Cattle of Ra". In the myth of the Celestial Cow, it is recounted how mankind plotted against Ra and how he sent his eye as the goddess Sekhmet to punish them.

     As with most widely worshiped Egyptian deities, Ra's identity was often combined with other gods, forming an interconnection between deities:

  • Amun and Amun-Ra: Amun was a member of the Ogdoad, representing creation energies with Amaunet, a very early patron of Thebes. He was believed to create via breath and thus was identified with the wind rather than the sun. As the cults of Amun and Ra became increasingly popular in Upper and Lower Egypt respectively they were combined to create Amun-Ra, a solar creator god. It is hard to distinguish exactly when this combination happened, but references to Amun-Ra appeared in pyramid texts as early as the Fifth Dynasty. The most common belief is that Amun-Ra was invented as a new state deity by the Theban rulers of the New Kingdom to unite worshipers of Amun with the older cult of Ra around the 18th Dynasty. Amun-Ra was given the official title "King of the Gods" by worshippers, and images show the combined deity as a red-eyed man with a lion's head that had a surrounding solar disk.

  • Atum and Atum-Ra: Atum-Ra (or Ra-Atum) was another composite deity formed from two completely separate deities, however Ra shared more similarities with Atum than with Amun. Atum was more closely linked with the sun, and was also a creator god of the Ennead. Both Ra and Atum were regarded as the father of the deities and pharaohs and were widely worshiped. In older myths, Atum was the creator of Tefnut and Shu, and he was born from ocean Nun.

  • Horakhty: In later Egyptian mythology, Ra-Horakhty was more of a title or manifestation than a composite deity. It translates as "Ra (who is) Horus of the Horizons". It was intended to link Horakhty (as a sunrise-oriented aspect of Horus) to Ra. It has been suggested that Ra-Horakhty simply refers to the sun's journey from horizon to horizon as Ra, or that it means to show Ra as a symbolic deity of hope and rebirth. (See earlier section #The sun).

  • Khepri and Khnum: Khepri was a scarab beetle who rolled up the sun in the mornings and was sometimes seen as the morning manifestation of Ra. Similarly, the ram-headed god Khnum was also seen as the evening manifestation of Ra. The idea of different deities (or different aspects of Ra) ruling over different times of the day was fairly common but variable. With Khepri and Khnum taking precedence over sunrise and sunset, Ra often was the representation of midday when the sun reached its peak at noon. Sometimes different aspects of Horus were used instead of Ra's aspects.

  • Raet-Tawy: Raet or Raet-Tawy was a female aspect of Ra; she did not have much importance independent of him. In some myths she was considered to be either Ra's wife or his daughter.

Goddess of the Sun, Destruction, Pestilence, and War


  • Animals: Lions

  • Colors: Black, Gold, Orange, Red, White, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Blood Orange and Pomegranate.

  • Herbs: Cinnamon, Clove, Hops, and Jasmine.

  • Incense: Cedarwood, Frankincense, and Myrrh.

  • Magical Attributes: Destruction, Healing, Patron God, Pestilence, Protection, Sovereignty, Sun, and War.

  • Mineral: Gold

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Blood, Candle Flame, Dancing, Lion Figurines, Red Beer, and Wine.

  • Planet: Sun

  • Plants: Papyrus and Reeds.

  • Stones: Amber, Bloodstone, Carnelian, Garnet, Golden Calcite, Hematite, Obsidian, Onyx, Quartz, Red Jasper, Red Quartz, Ruby, Sunstone, Tiger’s Eye, and Yellow Jasper.

  • Symbols: Blood, Eye of Ra, Lion, Medical Tools, Red Linen, The Sun (noon), and Sun Disk.

  • Trees: Bamboo


     Sekhmet, also spelled Sakhmet, Sekhet, Sakhet, or Scheme, among other spellings), is a warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing. She is depicted as a lioness. She was seen as the protector of the pharaohs and led them in warfare. Upon death, Sekhmet continued to protect them, bearing them to the afterlife. Sekhmet is also a solar deity, sometimes called the daughter of Ra and often associated with the goddesses Hathor and Bastet. She bears the Uraeus, which associates her with Wadjet and royalty, and the solar disk.

     Sekhmet was considered the daughter of the sun god, Ra, and was among the more important of the goddesses who acted as the vengeful manifestation of Ra's power, the Eye of Ra. Sekhmet was said to breathe fire, and the hot winds of the desert were likened to her breath. She was also believed to cause plagues, which were called her servants or messengers, although she was also called upon to ward off disease. In a myth about the end of Ra's rule on the earth, Ra sends the goddess Hathor, in the form of Sekhmet, to destroy mortals who conspired against him. In the myth, Sekhmet's blood-lust was not quelled at the end of battle and led to her destroying almost all of humanity. To stop her Ra poured out beer dyed with red ochre or hematite so that it resembled blood. Mistaking the beer for blood, she became so drunk that she gave up the slaughter and returned peacefully to Ra.


     Sekhmet was considered the wife of the god Ptah and mother of his son Nefertum. She was also said to be the mother of a lion god, Maahes.

God of the Dessert and Storms


  • Animals: Crocodiles, Donkey, Jackals, Pig, and Scorpions.

  • Colors: Black, Purple, Red, and Silver.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Beer and Wine.

  • Herbs: Orris Root and Thistle.

  • Incense: Musk

  • Magical Attributes: Banishing, Binding, Chaos, Darkness, Deserts, Hexing, Lust, Power, Revenge, and Storms.

  • Mineral: Iron

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Beer and Incense.

  • Planet: Mars and Mercury.

  • Plants: Reeds

  • Stones: Black Diamond, Bloodstone, Garnet, Red Topaz, and Ruby.

  • Symbols: Was Scepter

  • Trees: 


     Set, or Seth, is a god of deserts, storms, disorder, violence, and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion. Set had a positive role where he accompanies Ra on his solar boat to repel Apep, the serpent of Chaos. Set had a vital role as a reconciled combatant. He was lord of the red (desert) land, where he was the balance to Horus' role as lord of the black (soil) land. In the Osiris myth, the most important Egyptian myth, Set is portrayed as the usurper who killed and mutilated his own brother Osiris. Osiris's wife Isis reassembled his corpse and resurrected her dead husband long enough to conceive his son and heir Horus. Horus sought revenge upon Set and the myths describe their conflicts.

     In art, Set is usually depicted as an enigmatic creature referred to by Egyptologists as the Set animal, a beast resembling no known creature, although it could be seen as a composite of an aardvark, a donkey, a jackal, or a fennec fox. The animal has a curved snout, long rectangular ears, a thin forked tail and canine body, with sprouted fur tufts in an inverted arrow shape; sometimes, Set is depicted as a human with the distinctive head. Some early Egyptologists proposed that it was a stylised representation of the giraffe, owing to the large flat-topped "horns" which correspond to a giraffe's ossicones. The Egyptians themselves, however, made a distinction between the giraffe and the Set animal. During the Late Period, Set is depicted as a donkey or as having a donkey's head.

God of Magic, Learning and Scribes


  • Animals: Baboons, Ibis, and Lizards.

  • Colors: Pale Blue and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Beer and Bread.

  • Herbs: Dill and Mugwort.

  • Incense: Jasmine and Lavender.

  • Magical Attributes: Balance, Civil and Religious Practices, Judgement, Knowledge, Learning, Magic, The Moon, Scribes, Secrets, Teaching, Wisdom, and Writing.

  • Metal: Silver

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Colored Inks, Lunar Shaped Candles, Pallets, Parchment Paper, Reed Pens, Writings Case, and Other Tools of the Scribe.

  • Planet: Mercury and Moon.

  • Plants: Lotus, Papyrus, Sweet Flag and Water Lily.

  • Sabbats: Mabon

  • Stones: Moonstone and Pearl.

  • Symbols: Baboon, Crescent Moon, Ibis, Moon Disk, Papyrus Scroll, Reed Pens, Scales, and Writing Palette.

  • Trees: Bamboo and Willow.


     Thoth is primeval: he is from before Creation. In some Egyptian myths, Thoth is the supreme creator. He created himself by speaking his own name. Even when he is not supreme creator, Thoth still does his fair share of creating. Thoth invented writing, gambling, star-gazing, engineering, geometry, botany, medicine, mathematics, and magic spells. He is the founder of alchemy and is the author, according to Egyptian myth, of the world’s very first book called The Book of Thoth, a collection of magic spells and rituals so powerful that it had to be hidden away.


     Thoth taught veneration of the spirits. He invented rules of sacrifice and composed hymns and prayers. Thoth is credited with writing some of the Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day.


     Thoth is Ra’s right-hand man. Without Thoth, Isis and her siblings would never have been born. Thoth may have taught Osiris the arts of civilization that Osiris then taught to humanity. Thoth, a master magician, taught Isis everything he knew. She is perhaps the only one who surpasses his magical knowledge, although, according to myth, even Isis still needs his assistance and advice once in a while.


     Thoth is kind, benevolent, patient, wise, and generous. He is what is considered a “cool” deity; he calms and soothes impassioned situations. In one legend, only Thoth can safely subdue a rampaging goddess threatening to destroy Earth.


     As befitting a shaman, Thoth lives in many realms at once:

• He travels among the living, teaching his magical skills.

• He serves as the official scribe in the Hall of the Dead.

• He rides in the solar barque beside Ra and thus lives in the realm of spirits.

The English name, Thoth, is based on the Greek pronunciation of the Egyptian Tehuti. His name is related to Egyptian words indicating “moon,” “measure,” “ibis,” and “crystal.”

• The Greeks identified Thoth with Hermes and Hermes Trismegistus.

• In Neil Gaiman’s novel American Gods, Mr. Ibis runs a funeral parlor with his partner Mr. Jacquel.


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