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The Roman Deities

      Ancient Rome was the Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC), Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, traditionally dated to 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time) covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.


     In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from an elective monarchy to a democratic classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic semi-elective military dictatorship during the Empire. Through conquest, cultural, and linguistic assimilation, at its height it controlled the North African coast, Egypt, Southern Europe, and most of Western Europe, the Balkans, Crimea and much of the Middle East, including Anatolia, Levant and parts of Mesopotamia and Arabia. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.


     Ancient Roman civilization has contributed to modern language, religion, society, technology, law, politics, government, warfare, art, literature, architecture and engineering. Rome professionalized and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments, palaces, and public facilities.

     The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars, Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily; took Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal); and destroyed the city of Carthage in 146 BC, giving Rome supremacy in the Mediterranean. By the end of the Republic (27 BC), Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus. Seven-hundred and twenty-one years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with the first struggle against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.


     Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. It stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century before some stability was restored in the Tetrarchy phase of imperial rule.


     Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century. The eastern part of the empire remained a power through the Middle Ages until its fall in 1453 AD.

     Now that we have a little background of where they come from, let's begin.

God of Wine and Barley


  • Animals: Bulls and Snakes.

  • Colors: Purple

  • Festivals/Holidays: Bacchanalia

  • Food: Grapes and Wine.

  • Herbs: Barley and Fennel.

  • Incense: Clove, Dragon's Blood, Hibiscus, Patchouli, and Red Sandalwood.

  • Magical Attributes: Agriculture, Fertility, and Wine.

  • Mineral: Gold and Silver.

  • Musical Instrument: Aulos

  • Offerings: Figs, Honey, and Wine.

  • Planet: Venus

  • Plants: Ivy and Vines.

  • Sabbats: Yule

  • Stones: Amethyst

  • Symbols: Grapevine, Leopard, Leopard Skin, Panther, Thyrsus, and Tiger.

  • Trees: Pine


     Bacchus was the child of Jupiter and Semélé, a human whom Juno had tricked into asking to see Jupiter as he really was. Since she was a mortal, she was burned up by the sight of Jupiter in his divine form. So Jupiter sewed the infant Bacchus into his thigh, and gave birth to him nine months later. As a child, Bacchus was tutored by Thanos, who was a great lover of wine and often had to be carried on the back of a donkey. Before he took his place at Olympus, Bacchus wandered the world for many years, going as far as India to teach people how to grow vines.


     Bacchus was the Roman god of agriculture, wine and fertility, equivalent to the Greek god Dionysus. Dionysius was said to be the last god to join the twelve Olympians. Supposedly, Hestia gave up her seat for him. His plants were vines and twirling ivy. He carried a pine cone-topped staff, and his followers were goat-footed Satyrs and Maenads, wild women who danced energetically during his festivals. Since many Romans and Greeks of ancient society revered Bacchus, he was also known as the Eleutherios which means the liberator. To Roman society this meant the freedom from ones typical self. Freedom came from the intoxication of wine. This intoxication would create madness, elation, and freedom to act however one felt.


     Bacchus’ mission as a god was to mix the music of the aulos, an ancient Greek musical instrument, and bring an end to trouble and concern in ancient society. This is also why he is credited with theater. Theater was a way for people to enjoy a play and be entertained.

Goddess of Agriculture, Grain, and Motherly Love


  • Animals: Pigs and Snakes.

  • Colors: Brown, Green, Orange, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays: AmbarvaliaCerealia, and Feriae Sementivae.

  • Food: Corn, Pomegranates, and Wheat.

  • Herbs: Barley, Comfrey, and Mullein.

  • Incense: Juniper

  • Magical Attributes: Agriculture, Corn, Fertility, and Laws.

  • Metal: Lead

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Wheat, Barley, Buckwheat, Corn, Fruit, Rye, and Sunflowers.

  • Planet: Earth

  • Plants: Poppies and Sunflowers.

  • Sabbats: Lammas, Mabon, and Samhain.

  • Stones: Almandine, Citrine, Pyrope, and Topaz..

  • Symbols: Corn, Flowers, Fruits, and Wheat.

  • Trees: Willow


     In the ancient Roman religion, Ceres was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility, and motherly relationships. She was originally the central deity in Rome's so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad, then was paired with her daughter Proserpina in what Romans described as "the Greek rites of Ceres". Her seven-day April festival of Cerealia included the popular Ludi Ceriales (Ceres' games). She was also honored in the May lustratio of the fields at the Ambarvalia festival, at harvest-time, and during Roman marriages and funeral rites. Ceres is the only one of Rome's many agricultural deities to be listed among the Dii Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.


     Ceres was born the daughter of the god Saturn and Ops. In various myths she is seen as mother to different deities, reflecting her role as a fertility goddess, but the most famous story is about her and her daughter Proserpina. She had twelve minor gods who assisted her, and were in charge of specific aspects of farming: "Vervactor who turns fallow land, Reparator who prepares fallow land, Imporcitor who plows with wide furrows" (whose name comes from the Latin imporcare, to put into furrows), "Insitor who sowed, Obarator who plowed the surface, Occator who harrowed, Sarritor who weeded, Subruncinator who thinned out, Messor who harvested, Conuector who carted, Conditor who stored, and Promitor who distributed".

Mother Earth Goddess


  • Animals: Bees and Lions.

  • Colors: Green, Pink, Red, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Megalisia

  • Food:

  • Herbs: Almond and Rosemary.

  • Incense: Cherry, Clove, Lilac, and Myrrh

  • Magical Attributes: Comfort, Developing Power of Faith, Earth, Goddess Power, Healing Animals and Plants, Healing Mental and Physical Illnesses, Improving Life, and Psychic Work with Spirits.

  • Metal: Gold and Silver.

  • Musical Instrument: Drum

  • Offerings:

  • Planet: Earth

  • Plants: Clover, Ivy, Lady’s Slipper, Lily, Pansy, and Skullcap.

  • Sabbats: Ostara, Beltane, and Litha.

  • Stones: Jet, Meteorite Stones, Onyx, and Stibnite.

  • Symbols: Keys, Meteorite Stones, and Pine.

  • Trees: Birch, Cherry, Cypress, Fir, Juniper, and Yew.


     Cybele is a Roman goddess, “Mother to the Gods”, and the patron goddess of transsexuals and transgendered individuals, particularly males. Her ancient followers were ritually castrated transsexuals. She is the goddess of nature and fertility, presiding over caves and mountaintops. Cybele protects city dwellers from invaders and war. When her husband, Attis, was castrated and died of his wounds, it was Cybele who resurrected him. She was celebrated with wild festivals of music and dancing, unabashed pagan enthusiasm, and orgies.

Goddess of Fertility, Hunting, and the Moon


  • Animals: Bears, Bees, Cats, Cattle, Deer, Dogs, and Scorpions.

  • Colors: Black, Indigo, Silver, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Nemoralia

  • Food: Blueberry, Broccoli, Butter, Coconut, Cucumber, Eggs, Grapes, Lemons, Milk, Potatoes, Pumpkins, and White Wine.

  • Herbs: Jasmine, Mugwort, Poppy, Rue, and Vervain.

  • Incense: Lemon, Rose, and Sandalwood.

  • Magical Attributes: Animals, Authority, Beauty Empowerment, Childbirth, Fertility, Hunting, Independence, Knowledge, Love, Protection, Strength, Wilderness, and Witchcraft.

  • Metal: Silver

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Floral Oils, Incense, Vase of Flowers, and White Candles.

  • Planet: Moon

  • Plants: Lily

  • Sabbats: Ostara and Beltane.

  • Stones: Amethyst and Moonstone.

  • Symbols: Arrows, Bow, Forest Items, Hounds, Moon, Stag, Sun, and Water.

  • Trees: Beech, Chestnut, Cypress, Fir, Hazel, Oak, Pine, and Walnut.


     Diana is said to be the daughter of Jupiter and Latona, born on the island of Delos along with her twin brother Apollo. Her two companions are Egeria, a midwife nymph, and Virbius a woodland God. In modern witchcraft lore, Diana bore a child, Aradia, the Queen of Witches and is an important figure in Stregheria. Diana is most often portrayed a hunter, often with a bow and quiver, accompanied by maidens, hunting dogs, or deer. In this aspect she is considered to be a pure and virginal Maiden Goddess of the Moon. Diana is honored by women because of her association as a Goddess of childbirth, nursing, and healing. In this aspect she is considered to be a Mother Goddess. Because Diana was also identified with darkness and witchcraft and served as a Goddess of the Underworld, she is also considered a Crone Goddess. As a true Triple Goddess her nature was a varied as her many aspects. She could be pure and virginal, maternal, and loving, or arrogant and vengeful. She is as changeable and unpredictable as nature. Sculptors sometimes created statues of her with three heads: those of a horse, a dog, and a boar. Such statues were displayed at places where three roads met.


     The most celebrated place of worship for Diana was a sacred grove beside Lake Nemi, at Aricia near Rome. The ancient Greek city of Ephesus was another center for the worship of Diana. The goddess had a magnificent temple there that took 220 years to construct and was regarded as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Within the temple was a famous ebony statue of Diana. The upper body of the statue was entirely covered with breasts, symbolizing Diana's role as goddess of fertility.

Goddess of Fertility, Springtime, and Flowering Plants


  • Animals: Bees, Birds, Doves, and Ladybugs.

  • Colors: Brown, Green, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Olives, Chestnuts, and most Fruits and Vegetables.

  • Herbs: Barley, Mugwort, Oleander, Primrose, and Tulip.

  • Incense: All Springtime Floral.

  • Magical Attributes: Beauty in Nature, Childbirth, Fertility, Flowers, Gardening, Sex, and Spring.

  • Metal: None

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Floral Perfumes and Waters, Fruit, Grain, Honey, Spring Flowers, and Spring Water.

  • Planet: Earth

  • Plants: All Flowers.

  • Sabbats: Ostara

  • Stones: Dendritic Quartz

  • Symbols: Spring Flowers

  • Trees: Apple, Oak, Pear, and Strawberry Tree.


     Beautiful Flora is the Goddess of Springtime and Flowering Plants, especially those that bear fruit. She has been depicted as a lovely young woman wearing light spring clothing, holding flowers, and crowned with blossoms. She embodies the flowering of all nature and teaches us to enjoy the pleasures of the moment and the promise of the future. Honey made from flowers is one of Flora’s gifts to us. Appropriate gifts for us to give to her as offerings are spring flowers, floral waters, floral perfumes, and spring water. Flora was a handmaiden of the Goddess Ceres and was responsible for the virgin birth of Mars by the Goddess Juno. Flora gave Juno a magic flower that when touched, caused pregnancy without the help of a man.

God of Gates and Doors


  • Animals: Butterflies and Swallows.

  • Colors: Orange and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Dried Fruit and Poultry.

  • Herbs: Dill, Marjoram, Savory, Valerian, and Vervain.

  • Incense: Honeysuckle and Lily of the Valley.

  • Magical Attributes: Beginnings, Doorways, Duality, Ending, Gates, Passages, Peace, Time, Transitions, and War.

  • Metal: Quicksilver

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Cakes, Coins, Dates, Figs, Honey, and Pure Salt.

  • Planet: None

  • Plants: Fern and Lily of the Valley.

  • Sabbats: Yule

  • Stones: Agate, Alexandrite, and Ruby.

  • Symbols: Doors, Gates, 2 Heads back to back, and Keys.

  • Trees: Hazel


     Janus was the god of beginnings and transitions in Roman mythology, and presided over passages, doors, gates, and endings, as well as in transitional periods such as from war to peace. He was usually depicted as having two faces looking at opposite ways, one towards the past and the other towards the future. There was no equivalent of Janus in Greek mythology.


     As a god of beginnings and transitions both in literal and abstract ways, he was also responsible for motion, changes, and time. He was present in the beginning of the world, guarding the gates of Heaven, and he also presided over the creation of religion, life, and even the gods. He was probably considered the most important Roman god, and his name was the first to be mentioned in prayers, regardless of which god the worshiper wanted to pray to. In one of the myths in which Janus played an important role, Romulus, one of the founders of Rome, kidnapped the Sabine women, helped by his men. Janus saved the women by creating a volcanic hot spring which erupted and buried the kidnappers in the mixture of boiling water and volcanic ash.

Goddess of Marriage and Women


  • Animals: Crows, Geese, Goats, Peacocks, Snakes, and Wolves.

  • Colors: Blue, Green, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Matronalia

  • Food: Figs

  • Herbs: Angelica and Vervain.

  • Incense: Lily of the Valley, Juniper, and Myrrh.

  • Magical Attributes: Childbirth, Guardian of National Finances, Marriage, Queen of Heaven, and Women.

  • Metal: Aluminum, Gold, and Silver.

  • Musical Instrument: Nonev

  • Offerings: Coins, Feathers, Flowers, Mineral Water, Peacock Vervain oil, and Wine.

  • Planet: Moon

  • Plants: Iris

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Diamond and Turquoise.

  • Symbols: Cloak, Goatskin, and Peacock.

  • Trees: Fig


     Juno, the Queen of Rome was an ancient spirit who along with Jupiter and Minerva, was one of the three original gods of Rome. Originally Juno was a Goddess of Time whose duty it was to organize the orderly division of time. The monthly menstrual cycle was the first method of timekeeping, so in this capacity, she rules women’s monthly menses. She is involved in woman’s lives from birth to death but most particularly married life, fertility, pregnancy, and childbirth. Juno can be thought of as a guardian angel to women, and she represents the female principle of life. Juno was the daughter of Saturn and married her twin brother Jupiter. She had two children, Mars, and Vulcan. Mars was not fathered by Juno’s husband Jupiter but was conceived by the use of a magic flower given to her by the Goddess Flora. She is often depicted driving a chariot pulled by lions.

The King God of Light and Sky


  • Animals: Bulls, Eagles, Rams, and Woodpeckers.

  • Colors: Blue, Purple, Red, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Epulum Jovis and Ludi Plebeii.

  • Food: Artichoke and Walnuts.

  • Herbs: Henbane, Gall Nut, Mullein, and Vervain.

  • Incense: Carnation and Cedar.

  • Magical Attributes: Business, Education, Good Luck, Meditation, Prosperity, Psychic Development, Publishing, Strengthening Spirituality, and Success.

  • Metal: Tin

  • Musical Instrument: Business, Education, Good Luck, Meditation, Prosperity, Psychic Development, Publishing, Strengthening Spirituality, and Success.

  • Offerings: Bread, Cakes, Cheese, Fruit, Gold, Incense, Milk, Silver, Walnuts, and Wine.

  • Planet: Jupiter

  • Plants: Carnation, Gorse, and Mistletoe.

  • Sabbats: Litha

  • Stones: Topaz

  • Symbols: Chariots, Eagle, Rain, Swan, and Thunderbolt.

  • Trees: Oak and Walnut.

     Jupiter is the shining father, God of light and sky who ruled over the daytime, and rules over the 4th realm called Chesed. He is the Spirit of thunder, lightning, and weather; who brings the quenching rains to assure fertility and abundance of crops. He is most often described with long hair and a beard, with a thunderbolt and an eagle. Saturn and Ops are Jupiter’s and his twin sister’s parents. He has 2 consorts, Juno who sits to his left, and Minerva who sits to his right. Jupiter can shape-shift into an animal at will. He appeared to Leda as a swan to seduce her, and when he abducted Ganymede he took the form of an eagle and carried him off to the home of the gods.

God of Male Fertility, Viticulture, and Freedom

Liber (Pater)

  • Animals: Bulls, Goats, and Snakes.

  • Colors: Burgundy, Green, and Purple.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Liberalia

  • Food: Grapes, Honey, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Cinnamon

  • Incense: Frankincense and Musk.

  • Magical Attributes: Agriculture, Male Fertility, Subversion of the Powerful, Uninhibited Freedom, Viticulture, and Wine.

  • Metal: Silver

  • Musical Instrument: Lyre

  • Offerings: Cakes, Honey, Masks, Oil, and Songs.

  • Planet: None

  • Plants: Grapevines and Ivy.

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Amethyst

  • Symbols: Phallus

  • Trees: Hawthorn


     Liber ("the free one"), also known as Liber Pater ("the free Father"), was a god of viticulture and wine, fertility, and freedom. He was a patron deity of Rome's plebeians and was part of their Aventine Triad. His festival of Liberalia became associated with free speech and the rights attached to coming of age. At the town of Lavinium, a whole month was consecrated to Liber, and the festival activities there were believed to make the seeds grow.


     He never had a major temple of his own in Rome, but formed part of the Aventine Triad: Ceres, Liber, and Libera, whose joint temple was founded in 493 BCE, possibly under south Italian influence, and became a great center for the plebeians in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Liber and Libera (like other early Roman deities) seem originally to have formed a pair; they were concerned with seeds and therefore with the promotion of fertility both agricultural and human. At Liber's festival, a phallus was paraded through the fields and into town, accompanied by the singing of crude rustic songs.

Goddess of Fertility


  • Animal: Rabbits

  • Color: Green and Pink.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Liberalia

  • Food: Fried Honey Pancakes and Wine.

  • Herbs: Clove, Lemon Balm, Sage, and Yellow Dock.

  • Incense: Ambergris, Basil, and Musk.

  • Magical Attributes: Agriculture, Female Fertility, Freedom, Law, Liberty, Libido, and Wine.

  • Metal: Silver

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Fried Honey Pancakes, Vulva Shaped Candles, and Wine.

  • Planet: None

  • Plants: Ivy

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Carnelian, Malachite, and Rhodochrosite.

  • Symbols: Vulva

  • Trees: Hawthorn


     Libera ("The Free One") is a Goddess of Fertility. She is the female counterpart of Liber, god of wine and male fertility. She is part of a triad of deities, with Ceres and Liber, and had a temple on the Aventine Hill. After the foundation of the Aventine Triad, she assimilated the mythology of the Greek Persephone, and was seen as the daughter of Ceres, who had assimilated the mythology of Demeter. To celebrate the return of vegetation to the earth's surface, old women would serve as Libera's priestesses. It used to be celebrated largely in the country and was the occasion for the wearing of masks, the singing of crude songs and general unrestrained merrymaking.


     Less is now known about Libera than Liber possibly because no matter how offended later Christian commentators were by Liber’s phallic processions, Libera’s, which displayed vaginal images, must have been even more shocking. One version of their myth suggests that Liber died when Libera conceived. Liber was reborn as her child and in the process Libera became Ceres, the Corn Mother. Liber is the corn, eternally born, cut down and born again.

Goddess of the Moon and the Heavens


  • Animals: Fish, Moths, and White Birds.

  • Colors: Silver and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Breads, Fish, Lemon, and White Wine.

  • Herbs: Chamomile, Eucalyptus, and Jasmine.

  • Incense: Strawberry and Violet.

  • Magical Attributes: Creativity, Femininity, Luck, Safety in Travel, and Water.

  • Metal: Silver

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Fruit, Honey, Grain, Milk, Perfume, Pictures of White Birds, White Flowers, and White Wine.

  • Planet: Moon

  • Plants: Moon Flowers and Moonwort.

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Moonstone and Selenite.

  • Symbols: Moon Images, Water, and Weapons.

  • Trees: Rowan and Willow.


     Luna is the divine embodiment of the Moon. She is often presented as the female complement of the Sun, Sol, conceived of as a god. Luna is also sometimes represented as an aspect of the Roman triple goddess (diva triformis), along with Proserpina and Hecate. Luna is not always a distinct goddess, but sometimes rather an epithet that specializes a goddess, since both Diana and Juno are identified as moon goddesses. In Roman art, Luna attributes are the crescent moon plus the two-yoke chariot (biga). In the Carmen Saeculare, performed in 17 BC, Horace invokes her as the "two-horned queen of the stars" (siderum regina bicornis), bidding her to listen to the girls singing as Apollo listens to the boys.


     Varro categorized Luna and Sol among the visible gods, as distinguished from invisible gods such as Neptune, and deified mortals such as Hercules. She was one of the deities Macrobius proposed as the secret tutelary of Rome. In Imperial cult, Sol and Luna can represent the extent of Roman rule over the world, with the aim of guaranteeing peace. Luna's Greek counterpart was Selene. In Roman art and literature, myths of Selene are adapted under the name of Luna. The myth of Endymion, for instance, was a popular subject for Roman wall painting.

     Varro lists Luna among twelve deities who are vital to agriculture, as does Vergil in a different list of twelve, in which he refers to Luna and Sol as clarissima mundi lumina, the world's clearest sources of light. Varro also lists Luna among twenty principal gods of Rome (di selecti). In this list, Luna is distinguished from both Diana and Juno, who also appear on it. The Romans dated the cultivation of Luna as a goddess at Rome to the semi-legendary days of the kings. Titus Tatius was supposed to have imported the cult of Luna to Rome from the Sabines, but Servius Tullius was credited with the creation of her temple on the Aventine Hill, just below a temple of Diana. The anniversary of the temple founding (dies natalis) was celebrated annually on March 31. It first appears in Roman literature in the story of how in 182 BC a windstorm of exceptional power blew off its doors, which crashed into the Temple of Ceres below it on the slope. In 84 BC, it was struck by lightning, the same day the popularist leader Cinna was murdered by his troops. The Aventine temple may have been destroyed by the Great Fire of Rome during the reign of Nero.

The God of War


  • Animals: Boars, Bulls, Horses, Rams, Wolves, and Woodpeckers.

  • Colors: Black and Red.

  • Festivals/Holidays: EquirriaFeriae MartiMamuraliaTubilustriumOctober Horse, and Armilustrium.

  • Food: Bread, Garlic, Meat, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Belladonna, Hops, Nettles, and Vervain.

  • Incense: Cedar and Dragon’s Blood.

  • Magical Attributes: Agriculture,  Fertility, Military, Power, and War.

  • Metal: Iron and Steel.

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Animal Sacrifices (Bull, Pig, and Ram), Meat, Wheat, and Wine.

  • Planet: Mars

  • Plants: Buttercup

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Bloodstone, Carnelian, Garnet, and Haematite.

  • Symbols: Helmet and The Spear of Mars.

  • Trees: Bay Laurel, Dogwood, Fig, Hawthorn, and Oak.


     Mars was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was the son of Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming.


     Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares, whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars. But the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, who is often treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature. Mars's altar in the Campus Martius, the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa, the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome. Although the center of Mars's worship was originally located outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium), Augustus made the god a renewed focus of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum.


     Although Ares was viewed primarily as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, and was a father (pater) of the Roman people. In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome, Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia. His love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome's founding; Venus was the divine mother of the hero Aeneas, celebrated as the Trojan refugee who "founded" Rome several generations before Romulus laid out the city walls.


     The importance of Mars in establishing religious and cultural identity within the Roman Empire is indicated by the vast number of inscriptions identifying him with a local deity, particularly in the Western provinces.

Messenger God and God of Commerce


  • Animals: Rams, Roosters, and Tortoises.

  • Colors: Orange, Red, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Hazelnuts

  • Herbs: Anise, Dill, and Fennel.

  • Incense: Hazelnut Oil

  • Magical Attributes: Boundaries, Commerce, Communication, Divination, Eloquence, Financial Gain, Luck, Messages, Thieves, Travel, and Trickery.

  • Metal: Mercury, Quicksilver, and Zinc.

  • Musical Instrument: Lyre

  • Offerings: Coins

  • Planet: Mercury

  • Plants: Dogs Mercury

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Agate and Opal.

  • Symbols: Caduceus, Money bag, and Winged Cap and Sandals.

  • Trees: Hazel


     Mercury is a major god in Roman religion and mythology, being one of the 12 Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon. He is the god of financial gain, commerce, eloquence, messages, communication (including divination), travelers, boundaries, luck, trickery and thieves; he also serves as the guide of souls to the underworld. He was considered the son of Maia, who was a daughter of the Titan Atlas, and Jupiter in Roman mythology. In his earliest forms, he appears to have been related to the Etruscan deity Turms; both gods share characteristics with the Greek god Hermes. He is often depicted holding the caduceus in his left hand. Similar to his Greek equivalent Hermes, he was awarded a magic wand by Apollo, which later turned into the caduceus, the staff with intertwined snakes.

     Like Hermes, he was also a god of messages, eloquence and of trade, particularly of the grain trade. He was the patron of travelers and the god of thievery as well. Mercury was also considered a god of abundance and commercial success, particularly in Gaul, where he was said to have been particularly revered. He was also, like Hermes, the Romans' psychopomp, leading newly deceased souls to the afterlife. Additionally, Ovid wrote that Mercury carried Morpheus' dreams from the valley of Somnus to sleeping humans.

Goddess of Wisdom, Arts, and Trade


  • Animals: Owls and Spiders.

  • Colors: White, Silver, and Red.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Quinquatria

  • Food: Mulberry and Olive Oil.

  • Herbs: Dill, Dragon’s Blood, Marigold, and Valerian.

  • Incense: Dragon’s Blood, Frankincense, and Geranium.

  • Magical Attributes: Arts, Commerce, Craft, Medicine, Music, Poetry, Strength, Teaching, Trade, and Wisdom.

  • Metal: Iron and Silver.

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Geranium

  • Planet: None

  • Plants: Geranium, Holy Thistle, Nettles, and St. John’s Wort.

  • Sabbats: 

  • Stones: Goldstone and Tourmaline (Blue, Pink, or Red).

  • Symbols: Olive Tree, The Parthenon, The Serpent of Jupiter, Spear, Spider, and Spindle.

  • Trees: Olive


     Minerva  is the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. Minerva is not a patron of violence such as Mars, but of defensive war only. From the second century BC onward, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena. Minerva is one of the three Roman deities in the Capitoline Triad, along with Jupiter and Juno. She was the virgin goddess of music, poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, and the crafts. She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the "owl of Minerva", which symbolised her association with wisdom and knowledge as well as, less frequently, the snake and the olive tree. Minerva is commonly depicted as tall with an athletic and muscular build, as well as wearing armour and carrying a spear. Marcus Terentius Varro considered her to be ideas and the plan for the universe personified.

     Minerva is a prominent figure in Roman Mythology. She appears throughout many famous myths. Many of the stories of her Greek counterpart Athena are attributed to Minerva in Roman mythology, such as that of the naming of Athens resulting from a competition between Minerva and Neptune (mythology), in which Minerva created the olive tree.

Lord of Fresh Water (Original)/Lord of the Sea (Modern)


  • Animals: Bulls and Horses.

  • Colors: Blue, Green, Purple, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Neptunalia

  • Food: Almonds and Fish.

  • Herbs: Cardamom, Fennel, Geranium, Lemongrass, Passion Flower, and White Sandalwood.

  • Incense: Geranium and Musk.

  • Magical Attributes: Agriculture, Fresh Water, and Rain.

  • Mineral: Platinum

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Fish, Incense, Shellfish, and Water Lilies.

  • Planet: Neptune

  • Plants: Lotus, Reeds, Violet Wisteria, and Water Lily.

  • Sabbats: Litha

  • Stones:

  • Symbols:

  • Trees: Almond and Willow.


     Although Neptune is now considered the Roman Lord of the Sea, he was originally a freshwater god. His association with the ocean derived from his identification with the Greek Poseidon. The identities of the two originally distinct gods are now so intertwined that it is virtually impossible to distinguish between them. Little information survived regarding Neptune prior to his identification with Poseidon. However, we do know that the Romans invoked Neptune to protect fresh water, especially for agricultural uses.

     The theology of Neptune may only be reconstructed to some degree, as since very early times he was identified with the Greek god Poseidon: his presence in the lectisternium of 399 BC is a testimony to the fact. Such an identification may well be grounded in the strict relationship between the Latin and Greek theologies of the two deities. It has been argued that Indo-European people, having no direct knowledge of the sea as they originated from inland areas, reused the theology of a deity originally either chthonic or wielding power over inland freshwater as the god of the sea. This feature has been preserved particularly well in the case of Neptune who was definitely a god of springs, lakes and rivers before becoming also a god of the sea, as is testified by the numerous findings of inscriptions mentioning him in the proximity of such locations. Servius the grammarian also explicitly states Neptune is in charge of all the rivers, springs and waters. He also is the lord of horses because he worked with Minerva to make the chariot.

God of the Underworld and Punisher of Broken Oaths


  • Animals: Dogs and Wolves.

  • Colors: Black

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food:

  • Herbs:

  • Incense:

  • Magical Attributes: Death, Oaths, Punishment, and Underworld.

  • Mineral: Lead and Mercury.

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings:

  • Planet:

  • Plants:

  • Sabbats: Samhain

  • Stones: Jet and Onyx.

  • Symbols:

  • Trees: Oak


     Orcus was a god of the underworld, punisher of broken oaths in Italic and Roman mythology. As with Hades, the name of the god was also used for the underworld itself. In the later tradition, he was conflated with Dis Pater. Orcus was portrayed in paintings in Etruscan tombs as a hairy, bearded giant. A temple to Orcus may have existed on the Palatine Hill in Rome. It is likely that he was transliterated from the Greek daemon Horkos, the personification of Oaths and a son of Eris.

     The origins of Orcus may have lain in Etruscan religion. The so-called Tomb of Orcus, an Etruscan site at Tarquinia, is a misnomer, resulting from its first discoverers mistaking as Orcus a hairy, bearded giant that was actually a figure of a Cyclops. The Romans sometimes conflated Orcus with other gods such as Pluto, Hades, and Dis Pater, god of the land of the dead. The name "Orcus" seems to have been given to his evil and punishing side, as the god who tormented evildoers in the afterlife. Like the name Hades (or the Norse Hel, for that matter), "Orcus" could also mean the land of the dead. As such a place, it was believed to be an abode for purification of the souls.


     Orcus was chiefly worshipped in rural areas; he had no official cult in the cities. This remoteness allowed for him to survive in the countryside long after the more prevalent gods had ceased to be worshipped. He survived as a folk figure into the Middle Ages, and aspects of his worship were transmuted into the wild man festivals held in rural parts of Europe through modern times. Indeed, much of what is known about the celebrations associated with Orcus come from medieval sources.

God of Seeds and Harvest


  • Animals: Cuttlefish, Donkeys, Lapwings, and Moles.

  • Colors: Black

  • Festivals/Holidays: The Saturnalia

  • Food: Bread, Corn, Grains, Water, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Hellebore, Hemlock, Hemp, and Mandrake.

  • Incense: Juniper Savin

  • Magical Attributes: Agriculture, Farming, Growth, Harvests, Liberation, Plenty, Renewal, Seeds, and Wealth.

  • Mineral: Lead

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Incense ans Wine.

  • Planet: Saturn

  • Plants: Holly and Wolf's-bane.

  • Sabbats: All Harvest Sabbats

  • Stones: Onyx

  • Symbols: Sickle and Scythe.

  • Trees: Juniper and Pine


     Saturn was described as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation. Saturn's mythological reign was depicted as a Golden Age of plenty and peace. After the Roman conquest of Greece, he was conflated with the Greek Titan Cronus, becoming known as a god of time. Saturn's consort was his sister Ops, with whom he fathered Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Juno, Ceres and Vesta. Saturn was especially celebrated during the festival of Saturnalia each December, perhaps the most famous of the Roman festivals, a time of feasting, role reversals, free speech, gift-giving and revelry. The Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum housed the state treasury and archives (aerarium) of the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. The planet Saturn and the day of the week Saturday are both named after him.

     One of Saturns origin stories is that he is Kronos. After Zeus expelled him form the celestial realm, he wandered Earth, an old man in a robe until Janus extended Rome's hospitality to him, opening the doors of welcome. Together Janus and Saturn served as door guardians of Rome's state treasury.

     He may also be a prototype to the Grim Reaper. At least one man was sacrificed to him annually.

Sun God

Sol Invictus

  • Animals:

  • Colors: Gold and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food:

  • Herbs: Chamomile, Cinnamon, and Peony.

  • Incense: Dragon's Blood

  • Magical Attributes: Patron God, Soldiers, and Sun.

  • Metal: Gold

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Candles and Lights.

  • Planet: Sun

  • Plants: Sol Invictus Peony

  • Sabbats: Yule

  • Stones: Sunstone

  • Symbols: The Sun

  • Trees: Juniper


     Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. Invictus ("unconquered, invincible") was an epithet utilized for several Roman deities, including Jupiter, Mars, Hercules, Apollo, and Silvanus. It had been in use from the 3rd century BC. The Roman cult to Sol is continuous from the "earliest history" of the city until the institution of the Christian cult as the exclusive state religion.

Goddess of the Earth


  • Animals: All

  • Colors: All Colors Found in Nature.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Fordicidia, Lectisternium, Moveable Feast, and Sementivae.

  • Food: Raw foods and Simple Basic Foods.

  • Herbs: All

  • Incense: All Natural Incense.

  • Magical Attributes: Agriculture and The Embodiment of Earth and Nature.

  • Metal: All Natural Metals.

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Flowers and Fruit.

  • Planet: Earth

  • Plants: All

  • Sabbats: All

  • Stones: All Natural Stones.

  • Symbols: Cornucopia, Flowers, Fruit, and The Earth.

  • Trees: All


     In ancient Roman religion and myth, Tellus Mater or Terra Mater ("Mother Earth") is a goddess of the earth. Although Tellus and Terra are hardly distinguishable during the Imperial era, Tellus was the name of the original earth goddess in the religious practices of the Republic or earlier. The scholar Varro (1st century BCE) lists Tellus as one of the di selecti, the twenty principal gods of Rome, and one of the twelve agricultural deities. She is regularly associated with Ceres in rituals pertaining to the earth and agricultural fertility.


     The attributes of Tellus were the cornucopia, or bunches of flowers or fruit. She was typically depicted reclining, or rising, waist high, from a hole in the ground. Her male complement was a sky god such as Caelus (Uranus) or a form of Jupiter. Her Greek counterpart is Gaia, and among the Etruscans her name was Cel. Michael Lipka has argued that the Terra Mater who appears during the reign of Augustus is a direct transfer of the Greek Ge Mater into Roman religious practice, while Tellus, whose ancient temple was within Rome's sacred boundary (pomerium), represents the original earth goddess cultivated by the state priests.

Goddess of Beauty and Love


  • Animals: Bees, Doves, and Sparrows.

  • Colors: Pink

  • Festivals/Holidays: Veneralia and Vinalia.

  • Food: Apple, Blackberry, and Quince.

  • Herbs: Dittany of Crete, Marjoram, and Rosemary.

  • Incense: Cinnamon, Pine Oil, Rose, and Vervain Oil.

  • Magical Attributes: Beauty, Fertility, Love, Prosperity, Sex, and Vegetable Growing.

  • Metal: Copper

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Blackberries and Wine.

  • Planet: Venus

  • Plants: Myrtle and Rose.

  • Sabbats: 

  • Stones: Abalone and Rose Quartz.

  • Symbols: Common Myrtle and Rose.

  • Trees: Birch


     The Latin Goddess Venus was originally a Goddess of the vine (Venus, Vino) and a protector of vineyards and gardens. She was adopted into the Roman pantheon as the local version of the Greek Goddess Aphrodite. Her original associations largely forgotten, most myths attributed to Venus that have survived today were originally Aphrodite’s though She also borrows aspects from the Etruscan deity Turan. However, Venus does retain Her own personality.

     Venus and Mars were exceptionally important tutelary Gods of the Roman state, both considered divine ancestors of the Roman people. According to Roman lore, Aphrodite, and by extension Venus, was the mother of Aeneas, a warrior from Troy who fled to Italy after its destruction. Aeneas was the great-great-great…. grandfather of Remus and Romulus, the legendary founders of Rome. Julius Ceasar also claimed to be descended from Venus.

     Venus symbolizes the feminine principle of the universe and is the patron of all women. In ancient Rome, girls offered their toys to Venus to mark their entrance into womanhood and brides made offerings to Venus in preparation for their nuptials. She was the patron of prostitutes and also guarded the sacred laws surrounding sexuality and punished those who committed sexual crimes such as rape and incest, guarded the vows of the Vestal Virgins and guided sex addicts gently back to normality. She helped to ensure female fertility as well as the fertility of the land. Marital success and seduction lay within her realm of influence and so did the success of the state; victory in battle and general good fortune.

Goddess of the Hearth


  • Animals: Donkeys and Pigs.

  • Colors: Orange,  Red, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays: The Vestalia, Vernal Equinox, and Festival of the Hearth Fire.

  • Food:

  • Herbs: Angelica, Lavender, Peony, and Yarrow.

  • Incense: Amber, Lavender, and Lily of the Valley.

  • Magical Attributes: Baking, Childbirth, Commitment, Community, Dispel General Negativity, Family, Fertility, Fidelity, Fire, Fire Scrying, Harmony, Hearth, The Home, Kitchen Witchery, Love, Marriage, Peace, Purification, Security, Stability, and Witchcraft.

  • Metal: Brass, Gold, and Silver.

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Food Burned in Fire, Fresh Homemade Bread, Salt Cakes, and Sweet Wine.

  • Planet: Moon

  • Plants: Angel's Trumpet, Goldenrod, Hollyhock, Poppy, Purple Cornflower.

  • Sabbats: Imbolc and Ostara.

  • Stones: Amethyst, Black Diamond Garnet, and Saltpeter.

  • Symbols: Baked Goods, Bread, Fire, Hearth, Oven, Patera, Scepter, and Veils.

  • Trees: Bay Laurel and Willow.


     Vesta, Lady of the Flame, Guardian of the Hearth, was the preeminent goddess of Rome. Her name may derive from a root word meaning "to burn". Although Vesta is identified with the Greek hearth goddess, Hestia, and they possess much in common, they aren't the same. Vest was venerated in Italy long before her identification with Hestia and played a far more significant role in the Roman religion that Hestia did in Greece. Vesta was included in virtually every Roman sacrifice. She was consistently the last deity invoked during ceremonies: the polar opposite to Janus.

     Vesta was a beautiful goddess who caught the attention of gods Neptune and Apollo. As Vesta did not want to marry and was a peacekeeper by nature, she asked Jupiter if he would grant her permission to remain an eternal virgin. Jupiter granted this request, so Vesta focused herself on tending the fire and keeping the home. Another version of Vesta’s innocence to be preserved was at the command of Jupiter. Vesta was beautiful, and a war between Neptune and Apollo to win the hand of Vesta would have inflicted great damage. To prevent a war among the gods, Jupiter commanded Vesta to remain innocent and unmarried in order to keep the peace among Olympus.

     Vesta's small circular temple in the Roman Forum was the epicenter of Roman life and religion. Its round shape marked it as architecturally unusual, in comparison to standard quadrangular Roman temples. Vesta's temple was designed to recall the round huts of the earliest Romans. Vesta was the goddess of Rome's origins, so sacred and powerful that her archaic traditions could not be changed, even when they fell from fashion elsewhere. Vesta was the last and ultimately only Roman deity served exclusively by a female priesthood. Vesta's fire priestesses, the framed Vestal Virgins, lived next door to her temple in a large building arranged around an artium. Six Vestal Virgins were chosen in childhood by Rome's high priest, the Pontifex Maximus, from among the daughters of Rome's most noble families. It was considered an exceptional honor to be asked to serve.

God of Fire


  • Animals: Fish

  • Colors: Red

  • Festivals/Holidays: The Vulcanalia

  • Food: Fish and Wine.

  • Herbs: Basil and Holy Thistle.

  • Incense: Dragon's Blood and Pine.

  • Magical Attributes: Battles, Fire, The Forge, Jewelry Making, Smithery, Thunder, Thunderbolt, and Volcanoes.

  • Metal: Iron and Steel.

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Bonfires, Grilled Fish, Incense, and Wine.

  • Planet: Sun

  • Plants:

  • Sabbats: 

  • Stones: Bloodstone, Coal, Garnet, Obsidian, Red Agate, Red Topaz, and Ruby.

  • Symbols: Blacksmith's Hammer

  • Trees: Oak


     Vulcan is the devouring power of fire, which destroys all in its wake and puts enemies to flight. He's also the power of fire that provides warmth and safety. Vulcan can extinguish fires as well as cause and control them. He also has dominion over earthquakes, lightning, volcanoes, cremation, and spontaneous combustion.

     Vulcan made thrones for the other gods to sit on in Mount Etna. Through his identification with the Hephaestus of Greek mythology, he came to be considered as the manufacturer of art, arms, iron, jewelry and armor for various gods and heroes, including the thunderbolts of Jupiter. He was the son of Jupiter and Juno, and husband of Maia and Venus. His smithy was believed to be underneath Mount Etna in Sicily.

     Vulcan was the patron deity of Ostia, the ancient harbor city near Rome, where he protected stored grain from fire. He is a volatile spirit, if only because of his fiery nature. His temples were traditionally placed outside city bounds, possibly for safety's sake. Vulcan is celebrated with ritual incorporation bonfires and fireworks.

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