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The Greek Deities

     Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. AD 600). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.


     Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe. For this reason, Classical Greece is generally considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization.


     Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable ("divine") knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics, philosophy and knowledge in general.

     Now that we have a little background of where they come from, let's begin.

The Greek Deities: Text

Goddess of Love and Beauty


  • Animals: Dolphins, Doves, Geese, Partridges, Sparrows, and Swans.

  • Colors: Copper, Gold, Pink, Red, Sea Green, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Aphrodisia

  • Food: Apples, Chocolate, Honey, Olives, Pomegranates, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Cinnamon, Marjoram, and Myrtle.

  • Incense: Frankincense and Myrrh.

  • Magical Attributes: Art, Beauty, Fertility, Love, Pleasure, Procreation, and Sex.

  • Metal: Copper

  • Musical Instrument: Lyre

  • Offerings: Apples, Chocolate, Frankincense, Honey, Myrrh, Myrtle, Perfumes, Pomegranates, Roses, and Wine.

  • Planet: Venus and Sun.

  • Plants: Rose, Iris, and Myrtle.

  • Sabbats: Beltane, Litha, and Mabon.

  • Stones: Averturine, and Rose Quartz.

  • Symbols: Girdle, Mirrors, and Scallop Shells.

  • Trees: Cypress and Lime Tree.


     According to Olympian myth, when Uranus, Spirit of the Sky, was castrated, his severed member, dripping with sperm and blood, dropped into the fertile sea. Aphrodite was born of this merger of sea and sky. She came ashore at Cyprus, carried to land on a large scallop shell. Fittingly for a sex goddess, the Greek word kteis means “vulva” as well as “scallop.”


     Aphrodite, although now most associated with Greece, is originally a Semitic fertility/war spirit, akin to Astarte or Ishtar:

• She may be native to Cyprus, gateway between Mediterranean Asia, Europe, and Africa.

• She may originate in Syria or Assyria.

• Herodotus wrote that Phoenicians brought her to Cyprus from Ashkelon, now in Israel.


     Although the ancient Greeks adored Aphrodite, they were uncomfortable with the typical Near-Eastern merger of sex, fertility, and war spirit all bundled up in the form of a beautiful woman. In order to incorporate Aphrodite into the Olympic pantheon, the Greeks compartmentalized her, suppressing her warrior attributes. (This is made explicit in the Iliad when she is ordered off the battlefield.) Aphrodite’s main function in Greece became love, romance, sex, and protection of mariners. By the end of the Classical Era, many were uncomfortable with her raw sexuality: she was re-envisioned as Aphrodite Urania, Goddess of Heavenly Love.


     Aphrodite can raise and placate winds. Not only does she have power over people, animals, and plants, she has power over spirits, too, or at least most of the Greek pantheon. Exceptions are Artemis, Athena, and Hestia, who are immune to her powers. All the rest succumb to her allure. If you find yourself in trouble with them, appeal to Aphrodite for help. (In terms of altar space, keep Artemis and Athena away from Aphrodite, and do not petition them together.)


      Be sure to fulfill all vows in a timely manner. She is not always a patient spirit. If she loves you and Demonstrates favor, you will be expected to offer consistent attention and gifts. Aphrodite usually Demonstrates anger via animal attacks or bad luck in love.


     Aphrodite, a powerful, tremendously generous goddess, may be petitioned for virtually anything. Aphrodite, sometimes called the Oldest Fate, may have power over destiny. She may be able to change fate

God of The Sun and The Arts


  • Animals: Crow, Dolphins, Griffins, Hawks, Lions, Mice, Ravens, Snakes, Swans, and Wolves.

  • Colors: Gold/Yellow, Orange, and Red-Orange.

  • Festivals/Holidays: The Pythian Games (every 3 years in August).

  • Food: Fruit, Roman Honey Cake, Olives, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Anise, Bay Laurel, Heliotrope, Hyacinth, and Mistletoe.

  • Incense: Cinnamon, Clove, Cypress, Frankincense, Mugwort, and Myrrh.

  • Magical Attributes: Healing, Medicine Archery, Music and Poetry, The Leader of the Muses, Prophecy, Justice.

  • Metal: Gold

  • Musical Instrument: Lyre

  • Offerings: Animal Shaped Food, Apples, Art, Golden Raisins, Incense, Music, Roman Honey Cake, Solar Images, Sun-Shaped Cookies or Cakes, and Wine.

  • Planet: Sun

  • Plants: Hyacinth, Lily of the Valley, and Sunflower.

  • Sabbats: Litha and Yule

  • Stones: Amber, Carnelian, Citrine, Sapphire Sunstone, and Yellow Topaz.

  • Symbols: Bow and Arrow, Laurel Wreath, Lyre, Raven, and The Sun.

  • Tree: Apple, Cypress, Laurel, Palm, and Poplar.


     Apollo is one of the most complex and important gods, and is the god of many things, including: music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light, and knowledge. He is the son of Zeus and the Titan Leto, and was born in the Greek island of Delos, along with his older twin sister Artemis – goddess of the hunt. Apollo is the ideal of the kouros, which means he has a beardless, athletic, and youthful appearance. He is also an oracular god as a patron of Delphi and could predict prophecy through the Delphic Oracle Pythia. Both medicine and healing are associated with Apollo and were thought to sometimes be mediated through his son, Asclepius. However, Apollo could also bring ill-health and deadly plague. Apollo also became associated with dominion over colonists, and as the patron defender of herds and flocks.


     He was the leader of the Muses (also known as Apollon Musegetes) and was director of their choir – functioning as the patron god of music and poetry. The god Hermes create the lyre for Apollo and this instrument became a known attribute for him. When hymns were sung to Apollo they were called paeans. At the drinking parties held on Olympus, Apollo accompanied the Muses on his cithara, while the young goddesses led the dance. Both Leto and Zeus were proud of their son, who was radiant with grace and beauty. Apollo was one of the few gods that the Romans kept the same name. In Greek mythology, he was most widely known as the god of light. Within Roman mythology, he wasn’t known as much as the god of light and was focused mainly as the god of healing and prophecy.

God of War


  • Animals: Barn Owls, Eagle-Owls, Poisonous Snakes, Vultures, and Woodpeckers.

  • Colors: Black, Purple, and Red.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Soldiers would make sacrifices before going to Battle.

  • Food: Beef and Wine.

  • Herbs: Flax, Hops, Hyssop, and Tobacco.

  • Incense: Dragon’s Blood

  • Magical Attributes: Bravery, City Defenses, Courage, Driving Armies, Fighting-Strength, Fights, Endurance, Manslaughter, Military Invasion, Murder, Quarrels, Rage, and Violent Deeds.

  • Metal: Gold and Steel.

  • Musical Instrument: Lyre

  • Offerings: Blood, Incense, and Wine.

  • Planet: Mars

  • Plants: None

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Bloodstone, Garnet, Quartz, Red Jasper, Ruby, and Violet Sodalite.

  • Symbols: Boa, Chariot, Dog, 4 Fire-Breathing Horses, Flaming Torch, Helmet, Shield, Spear, Sword, and Vulture.

  • Trees: Hawthorn


     Ares is the Greek god of war. He is one of the Twelve Olympians, the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek literature, he often represents the physical or violent and untamed aspect of war and is the personification of sheer brutality, in contrast to his sister, the armored Athena, whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship.


     The Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares: although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war, he was a dangerous force, "overwhelming, insatiable in battle, destructive, and man-slaughtering." His sons Phobos (Fear) and Deimos (Terror) and his lover, or sister, Enyo (Discord) accompanied him on his war chariot. In the Iliad, his father Zeus tells him that he is the god most hateful to him. An association with Ares endows places and objects with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality.


     His value as a war god is placed in doubt:

  • During the Trojan War, Ares was on the losing side, while Athena, often depicted in Greek art as holding Nike (Victory) in her hand, favored the triumphant Greeks. Ares plays a relatively limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives, though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are often alluded to. When Ares does appear in myths, he typically faces humiliation.


     He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, who was married to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship. The most famous story related to Ares and Aphrodite shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband's device.

Goddess of The Night and The Hunt


  • Animals: Bears, Bees, Boars, Cats, Deer, Dogs, Dolphins, Goats, Fish, Owls, Quails, and Wolves.

  • Colors: Silver and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Artemis OrthiaElapheboliaKharisteria, and Munichia 

  • Food: Boar and Deer Meat, Honey Cakes, Wild Greens, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Mugwort and Tarragon.

  • Incense: Mugwort

  • Magical Attributes: Children, and Child Birth, Magic, Nature, and  Virginity.

  • Metal: Silver

  • Musical Instruments: None

  • Offerings: Anything on Behalf of Wild Nature, Boar Meat, Honey Cakes, Menstrual Blood, Saffron and Tusks.

  • Planet: Moon

  • Plants: Southern Woods and Wormwood.

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Clear Quartz, Moonstone, and Pearl.

  • Symbols: Arrows, Bow, and Moon.

  • Trees: Bay Laurel, Cedar, Cypress, Fir, Myrtle, Oak, Walnut, Wild Fig, and Willow.


     Artemis was born on the Island of Delos, the illegitimate daughter of Zeus and Leto. Zeus granted Artemis her greatest wish; that she never would be forced to marry.


     Artemis is a Goddess of independence and autonomy who is ruled by no one but Herself. Artemis also received a bow and arrow, a pack of hounds and nymphs to accompany her. The Great God Pan himself gave her the hounds. Artemis as Mistress of the Hunt protects the wilderness and sacred hunting rituals. Artemis wears a short tunic, carrying a silver bow and arrows, and a shield bearing the image of a wolf. She has a chariot which is drawn by stags. She spends her time roaming the forest, meadows, and waters edges. She can bestow or remove fertility from plants, animals, and humans according to her will. Artemis is also able to take the lives of animals and people and is the Gatekeeper who decides who lives and dies.


     In her Moon Goddess aspect, she carries torches or has stars circling her head. She wanders the wilderness by the light of the Moon or by torchlight. The Moon is her spinning wheel upon which she spins the fate of human beings. Artemis is associated with the Moon trinity of Selene who rules in Heaven, Artemis who rules on Earth, and Hecate who rules the Underworld. Artemis can be a stern and unforgiving Goddess, especially towards men. She can be merciless to any who offend her.  She favors women, but will also punish them if they fail to do her bidding, but she will also act quickly to protect and rescue those who call for her help. Artemis was invoked by women in labor and she is the protector of youth, especially of young girls.

Goddess of Wisdom, War, Art, Industry, Justice, and Skill


  • Animals: Cats, Doves, Leopards, Owls, Pegasus, Rams (Golden Fleece), Sea Eagles, Snakes, and Tigers.

  • Colors: Emerald Green, Indigo, Gold, Orange, Royal Blue, Silver, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Lychnapsia (Aug. 12th) and Panathenaic Games.

  • Food: Apples and Olives.

  • Herbs: Allspice, Cloves, Geranium, Ginger, and Wormwood.

  • Incense: Cedar, Cinnamon, Dragon's Blood, Musk, Orange Blossom, and Patchouli.

  • Magical Attributes: Arts, Civilization, Courage, Crafts, Inspiration, Laws, Justice, Mathematics, Skill, Strategy, Strength, Warfare, and Wisdom.

  • Metal: Gold

  • Musical Instrument: She abandoned the Bone Flute she invented (a snake charmer’s instrument, too sexually provocative).

  • Offerings: Candles, The Fruits of Your Labor and Creativity, Images of Owls, Incense, Ships, and Spiders.

  • Planet: Venus

  • Plants: Christmas/Lenten Roses, Hellebore, Holly, and Tiger Lilly.

  • Sabbats: Litha

  • Stones: Ivory, Lapis Lazuli, Onyx, Ruby, Star Sapphire, and Turquoise.

  • Symbols: Aegis, Armor, Gorgoneion, Helmets, and Spears.

  • Trees: Citrus, Cypress, Oak, and Olive.


     While Athena may be best known as one of the Olympian Goddesses of Greece, there is ample evidence to suggest that her worship is far older than the Olympians and ranged far beyond the shores of Greece.


     While she is often described simply as a Goddess of War, her actual nature is far more complex. In many ways, we will see that she has evolved alongside humanity, continuing even to the present day to be a vital source of wisdom. The many tales of the Wisdom Goddess' long life are quite diverse. There are a number of theories about her origin. There are some scholars who identify her evolution by examining her symbols. Marija Gimbutas is foremost in this approach.  Scholars of this type tend to see Athena’s origin as widespread throughout the Mediterranean and the spread of her worship and the changes in her imagery, a result of evolution.


     In the art of Classical Greece and Rome, we can easily identify her, by her helmet and spear, so we tend to associate her foremost as a Goddess of War. If we read of her, however, in the tales of Hellenic Greece we find that she was not a Goddess of the battlefield as much as she was a wise and cunning counselor of warriors and heroes. She helps Odysseus return to his home. She comforts and advises Hercules throughout his accomplishment of the Twelve Labors. Zeus may have been right to have feared that the child of Metis would become greater than he, for Athena has continued to be a force in our evolution.


     Her image is found decorating universities, academic organizations, government buildings, the state seal of California, even money! A town is named for her in Oregon. In Tennessee, her Parthenon has been reconstructed.

Goddess of the Bountiful Harvest and the Nurturing Spirit


  • Animals: Pigs, Red-Mullets, Screech Owls, Snakes  (her chariot was pulled by two winged serpents), and Turtle-Doves.

  • Colors: Brown, Green, and Gold.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Eleusinian Festival (any gender or social class) and Thesmophoria Festival (11–13 October, women-only).

  • Food: Bread, Corn, Fruits & Vegetables of the Harvest, Honey, Milk, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Mint and Poppy

  • Incense: Clove, Frankincense, Mint, Myrrh, and Rose Oil.

  • Magical Attributes: The Cycle of Life and Death, The Fertility of The Earth, Harvest, Goddess of The Harvest, Presides over Grains, and Sacred Law.

  • Metal: Copper

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Sheaves of wheat, Corn dollies, Fruits & Vegetables of the Harvest, Bread, Honey, Wine, Milk, Poppies, Sunflowers, and Cookies or Cakes made to look like one of Her symbols.

  • Planet: Earth

  • Plants: Wheat, Barley, Poppy, Sunflowers, Pennyroyal, Foxglove, and Columbine.

  • Sabbats: Lammas, Mabon, and Yule (Dark Mother).

  • Stones: Almandine Amber, Citrine, Pyrope, and Topaz.

  • Symbols: Acorns, Cornucopia, Harvest Tools, Livestock, Sheaves of Wheat, and Torch to help search for Persephone.

  • Trees: Ash, Chaste, Cypress, and Oak.


     Demeter is the primordial Corn Mother. She is not an Earth goddess; she is very specifically the spirit of cultivation and crops. De refers to divinity, as in deity, dei, or deva; Meter is literally Mother, and so Demeter is the “Divine Mother” or the “Deified Mother.” Another theory is that her name derives from deai, the Cretan word for barley, and thus her name would mean “Barley Mother.” Barley was among the very first grains cultivated in that region and frequently the most successful; Crete was a particularly early area of cultivation. Demeter’s myth credits her as being the founder, inventor, and promulgator of agriculture. She is a very great and powerful goddess.


     The myth for which Demeter is now most famous involves the abduction of her daughter, Persephone, but it is only one of a wide canon of myths in which she features. She was a tremendously important goddess, an ancient indigenous spirit of Greece incorporated into the Olympian pantheon. Instead of residing in Olympus, however, Demeter preferred to live on Earth.


     Demeter was a goddess of the masses and the elite. She presided over Mysteries, most famously the Mysteries of Eleusis near Athens, where she was venerated alongside Persephone. She was venerated with her daughter, Despoena, in Arcadian Mysteries and presided over the Mysteries at Lerna, one of the entrances to Hades.


     Demeter is a great magician with a particular talent for transformation. She bestows healing, fertility, protection, and prosperity. There is virtually nothing she can’t do for those she loves. If she is angry, she punishes by causing insatiable hunger.

God of Wine, Agriculture, and Fertility of Nature


  • Animals: Bulls, Goats, Leopards, Lions, Mules, Panthers, Snakes, and Tigers.

  • Colors: Burgundy, Deep Blue, and Purple.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Apples, Berries, Figs, Grapes, Pomegranates, and Whole Grain Breads.

  • Herbs: Cinnamon and Fennel.

  • Incense: Cinnamon

  • Magical Attributes: The Afterlife in Elysium, Grapes, Reincarnation, Resurrection, Wine, and Wine Making.

  • Metal: Gold and Silver.

  • Musical Instrument: The Aulos, Lyre, and Percussion Instruments.

  • Offerings: Breads, Dancing, Fruit, Grapes, Music, Sex, and Wine.

  • Planet: Venus

  • Plants: Bindweed, Grapevine, and Ivy.

  • Sabbats: Lammas, Mabon, and Samhain.

  • Stones: Black Diamond

  • Symbols: Fig, Grapevine, Ivy Crown, Pine Cone,  Staff, and Wine.

  • Trees: Fig, Silver Fir, and Walnut.


     Dionysus is the Greek God of fertility and wine and later considered a patron of the arts. He invented wine and taught how to tend grapes. Dionysus had a dual personality, he could bring joy and ecstasy or fly into a brutal rage, reflecting both sides of wine’s nature. Dionysus presided over the mysteries of birth, life, death, and rebirth. Like Cernunnos, he is the spirit of untamed wilderness, male sexuality, intoxication, shamanism, magic joy, hallucinations, madness, and sexual healing.


     Dionysus never harms anyone directly, instead he strikes them temporarily insane so that they harm or even kill themselves. He can also heal mental illness and save people from madness. If he is angry at you, he may cause you to become an alcoholic. He is also able to heal this affliction too.


     His original homeland is thought to be Thrace (modern Bulgaria) and he was the son of Zeus and Semele, a mortal woman. Zeus fell madly in love with Semele and came to her under cover of night to hide his true identity. The darkness made him invisible to Semele, though she felt his divine presence and was pleased to have a God as a lover, even if she didn’t know which God it was. Semele became pregnant with Dionysus. Zeus’s wife Hera soon learned of her husband’s infidelity. She disguised herself and convinced Semele that she should see her lover as he truly was. When Zeus next visited Semele she asked him to grant her one wish. Zeus agreed, and Semele requested that he reveal himself to her. Zeus was very unhappy because he knew what would happen, but having sworn he had no choice. He appeared in his true form and Semele immediately burnt to a crisp at the sight of his glory. Zeus managed to save the unborn Dionysus and stitched him into his thigh to hold him until he was born. Being born of Zeus made Dionysus a God. Hera remained jealous of Dionysus and plotted to have him killed by the Titans. The Titans ripped him to pieces, but he was brought back to life by Rhea. To protect him, Zeus sent him to the mountains to be raised by nymphs.


     Originally Dionysus was served only by women who were known as Maenads or Bacchanals, wild women, flush with wine, shoulders draped with a fawn skin, carrying rods tipped with pine cones The Maenads were the leaders in the Dionysian rites of ecstatic worship, dancing themselves into trances. To resist him was to risk madness. Dionysus presided over rites performed in the forests called Orgeias, from which the modern word orgy derives. He wandered the world with a caravan of Maenads, Satyrs and Panthers teaching agriculture, artisan skills, wine making and how to overcome military opposition.

Goddess of the Earth, Mother of All Life, The Queen Titan


  • Animals: Bees, Bulls, Pigs, and Serpents.

  • Color: Browns and Greens.

  • Festivals/Holidays: 

  • Food: All Vegetation, Barley, Breads, Golden Apple, Honey, and Wine.

  • Herbs: All of Them

  • Incense: Anything Woodsy/Earthy, Birch, Cedarwood, Cherry, Cloves, Cypress, Honeysuckle, Lilac, Musk, Oakmoss, Patchouli, Pine, Rosemary, and Sage.

  • Magical Attributes: The Goddess and Mother of Earth.

  • Metal: All of Them

  • Musical Instrument: Sounds of Nature

  • Offerings: Art, Burning Oil, Cookies or Cakes made to look like one of Her symbols, Creating Rearing Plants, Flowers of any kind (wildflowers are best), Fruits, Gardening, Grains, Honeyed Milk, Honey, Incense, Mead, Milk, Planting and Tending a Garden, Tithing, and Wine.

  • Planet: Earth

  • Plants: All Floral and Vegetation.

  • Sabbats: All

  • Stone: All of them but especially Agate, Amazonite, Chrysoprase, Emerald, Green Calcite, Malachite, Moonstone, Peridot, Quartz, Serpentine, and Turquoise.

  • Symbols: The Earth, Fruit, and Trees.

  • Trees: Birch, Cedarwood, Cypress, Pine, and Spruce.​


     Instead of looking up to the skies for the Creator, look underfoot. Gaia is Earth and Gaia is the Goddess. In the beginning, before anything existed, there was Chaos; the void. Gaia, the Earth, emerged from Chaos and formed the sea (Pontus) and the sky (Uranus) from her own body. Thus begins an ancient Greek creation saga. It is the point from which virtually every general Greek mythology book begins.

• Hesiod’s version of Creation skips right over the part with Chaos and starts with Gaia.

• Gaia is praised in the Homeric Hymns to Ge as the oldest of divinities.


     Gaia and Uranus become lovers and generate more beings (the Titans and Cyclopes, for instance). Following their separation, Gaia begat more children with Pontus. Gaia is literally the Earth: you can stand on her, but she is an active goddess with a personality, too. She is not a goddess of agriculture (that’s Demeter). Instead she is the spirit of the wild, sacred Earth containing untold treasure and potential.


     Gaia is devoted to all her children, accepting them as they are, unlike the many fathers (Uranus, Kronos, Zeus) of Greek mythology who prey upon their heirs and seek to suppress them. Gaia battles with gods on behalf of her children.


     This mythic Gaia is based on the cosmologies of Greece and southern Italy, regions highly prone to earthquakes, where Earth is experienced as an active, living presence. She is not static or motionless but very much alive. Earthquakes may be perceived as expressions of divine anger, but they also physically resemble birthing contractions. I lived at the epicenter of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake just four months after giving birth and can personally vouch for the resemblance between aftershocks and labor contractions.


     Gaia is an ever-present spirit of justice. She is never absent. Greek citizens swore public oaths to her. Shrines were dedicated to her; they were built near deep chasms, believed to be the most accessible place to communicate with her. Her shrines were associated with oracles such as those at Delphi, Athens, and Aegae (Macedonia). Delphi was the most famous oracle of the ancient world: Gaia’s priestesses, known as pythonesses, prophesied after inhaling vapors emerging from a fissure in Gaia. Essentially, they spoke directly with her. The oracular spirit Apollo staged a coup, slaying the shrine’s sacred serpent and installing himself as deity in charge. However, even after Delphi was rededicated to Apollo, the pythoness began her formal address to the deities with the words, “First in my prayer before all other deities, I call on Earth, primeval prophetess.”

Ruler of the Underworld


  • Animals: Bears, Black Rams, Horses, Screech Owls, and Wolves.

  • Colors: Black, Orange, Purple, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Funerals

  • Food: Fava Beans and Lupine Seeds.

  • Herbs: Mint

  • Incense: Frankincense and Patchouli.

  • Magical Attributes: Curses, Dreams, Fertility, Funeral Rites, Ghosts, Mining, Mourning, Necromancy, Precious Metals, and Wealth/Riches.

  • Metal: Iron

  • Musical Instrument: Drums and All Percussion.

  • Offerings: Money and Pomegranate.

  • Planet: Pluto

  • Plants: Asphodel, Black Narcissus, and Ebony.

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Amazonite, Coal, Fluorite, Hematite, Jet, Lodestone, and Red Jasper.

  • Symbols: Cerberus, Coins, Drinking Horn, Key, Narcissus, and Scepter.

  • Trees: Cypress and White Poplar.


     Hades is the god who rules the underworld of the dead. Hades is the son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. With one of his brothers, Zeus, he plots to overthrow their father Cronus, the god of time. Hades; Zeus, god of Olympus; and another brother, Poseidon, god of the sea, drew lots to divide up the world, and Hades fared the worst, getting the underworld. Hades seeks to increase the population of his kingdom and prevent anyone from leaving. The gates of his abode, also called Hades, are guarded by the three-headed dog Cerberus. Hades’ wife is Persephone, whom he abducted to the underworld.


     Hades is not actually his name: it refers to the extensive realm of death he rules, which is also known as Hades. His true name is a secret. It’s considered safer not to utter or even think it, lest he respond to the call. Hades is the original He Who Must Not Be Named. He’s also the one who must not be seen. Not only did people not articulate his true name, instead referring to him by euphemisms, they tried to avoid looking at him, too. When addressing Hades or giving him an offering, it’s traditional to avert one’s eyes. Eye contact is definitely not recommended. Hades was traditionally honored during funeral rituals, but, as befitting a deity whose name people were afraid to utter, Hades was not otherwise often invoked. He is, however, a spirit of justice and was traditionally requested to avenge crimes against the deceased, especially dishonor or defamation. He can be requested to punish murderers, too. Hades fears no one: all will ultimately bow before him; thus he is invoked against perpetrators perceived as otherwise above the law (dictators; mob bosses; drug lords). Hades is a spirit of last resort. He is petitioned by those experiencing maximum rage, despair, or grief—those who don’t care whether they live or die and hence are not afraid to summon the Death Lord.


     The most famous myth involving Hades concerns his abduction of Persephone. She is traditionally venerated alongside him and is considered a mollifying influence on her husband. (If you fear you have offended him, invoke Persephone’s aid to calm him down.) Hades is also an oracular spirit, lord of necromancy: any sort of divination involving receiving information from the dead, including Séances and Ouija boards, is under his domain. Hades, together with Persephone, may be propitiated when seeking consultations or visitations with the dead. Hades potentially controls dreams sent by the dead.

Goddess of the Dead & Queen of Witches


  • Animals: Bears, Crows, Dogs, Dragons, Frogs, Horses, Lions, Owls, Ravens, and Snakes.

  • Colors: Black, Mauve and Purples.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Day of Hekate at the CrossroadsHecatesia, and Last Day.

  • Food: Breads, Cake, Cheese, Garlic, Honey, Raw Eggs, Red Mullet, (a scavenging fish that was taboo in other cults), and Sprat.

  • Herbs: Aconite (Classically known as Hecateis), Belladonna, Cardamom, Dandelion, Garlic, Hellebore, Hemlock, Lavender, Lesser Celandine, Mandrake, Mint, Mugwort, and Opium Poppy.

  • Incense: Lavender, Mint, Myrrh, Patchouli, and Sandalwood.

  • Magical Attributes: Abundance, Banishing, Childbirth, Crossroads, Death, Divination, Eloquence, Entrance-Ways, Fire, Herbalism, Inner-Self, Justice, Light, Lunar Magic, Magic, Moon, Necromancy, Prosperity, Protection, Rebirth, Sorcery, and Witchcraft.

  • Metal: Silver

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Honey, Garlic, and Magic Mushrooms.

  • Planet: Moon

  • Plants: Azalea

  • Sabbats: Samhain

  • Stones: Jet, Lava Rock, Moonstone, Obsidian, and Onyx.

  • Symbols: Crossroads, Dagger, Dogs, Graveyards, Keys, and Paired Torches.

  • Trees: Almond, Cypress, Hazel, Oak, Willow, and Yew.

     Hecate is a Goddess shrouded in mystery, for there is continuing debate about her name, origin, and character. There are few legends about her, and no fixed genealogy. Some say that Hecate is the daughter of Erebus and Nyx, ageless Goddess of the Night, while others believe that she is one of the Furies or the last surviving Titan except for Zeus. Hesiod claims that she was born of the Titan Perses and the star goddess Asteria. Musaeus claims she was born to Asteria and Zeus, Euripides says she is a daughter of Leto, while Thessalian legend has it that Hecate is the daughter of Admetus and a Pheraean woman. It's likely that Hecate’s attributed birth changed as different social groups adopted her worship, but no Greek Clan or Tribe ever claimed descent from Hecate. Both facts support the theory that she originated outside Greece.


     Hecate’s name has several possible meanings. 'She who works Her will' is the most commonly accepted, but 'the far-off one' or 'far-darting one' is also suggested. Such names suggest that her power is far-reaching. Hecate is sometimes referred to as a triple goddess. Classically she was part of a group with Persephone and Demeter. Contrary to modern Pagan assumptions, Demeter represents the old crone woman, Persephone the wife woman, and Hecate is the Maiden. Every early Greek representation of Hecate shows her as a young woman. It is only much later that she is represented as Crone.


     Hecate’s best-known role in Greek myth is in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Demeter’s beloved daughter Persephone, the Goddess of spring, was playing in the meadows when Hades emerged from the Underworld and captured her. Hecate knew what had happened, and revealed the truth to Demeter, and together they go to try and rescue Persephone. It is finally agreed that Persephone shall spend part of the year in the Underworld with Hades and the rest on Earth with Demeter. Hecate henceforth acts as a guide for Persephone on her journeys between the worlds.

God of Smiths and Fire


  • Animals: Cranes and Donkeys.

  • Colors: Red

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Beef, Beer, Bread, Chicken, Corn, Fish, Honey, Onion, Potatoes, Wheat, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Fennel

  • Incense: Frankincense

  • Magical Attributes: Artisans, Blacksmiths, Craftsmen, Craftsman Skill, Fire, Jewelry, Metallurgy, Metalworkers, Precious Metals Armor and Weapons, Sculptors, Statues, and Volcanoes.

  • Metal: Iron

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Beer, Craftsman Tools, Fish, and Red Candles.

  • Planet: Mercury

  • Plants: Fennel

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Obsidian

  • Symbols: Anvil, Hammer, and Tongs.

  • Trees: Oak and Pine.


     Hephaestus was a truly kind and lovable god, but was the only deity who was physically ugly and lame. When his mother Hera saw him for the first time, she was so frustrated that she took her son and threw him from Mount Olympus to the depths of the seas, causing a deformation to his leg. Hephaestus was finally rescued by two Nereids, Thetis and Eurynome, who raised him for nine years inside a cave, far away and hidden from his cruel mother.


     As a smithing god, Hephaestus made all the weapons of the gods in Olympus. He served as the blacksmith of the gods, and was worshiped in the manufacturing and industrial centers of Greece, particularly Athens. The cult of Hephaestus was based in Lemnos. Hephaestus' symbols are a smith's hammer, anvil, and a pair of tongs.


     Though married to Hephaestus, Aphrodite had an affair with Ares, the god of war. Eventually, Hephaestus discovered Aphrodite’s affair through Helios, the all-seeing Sun, and planned a trap during one of their trysts. While Aphrodite and Ares lay together in bed, Hephaestus ensnared them in an unbreakable chain-link net so small as to be invisible and dragged them to Mount Olympus to shame them in front of the other gods for retribution. The gods laughed at the sight of these naked lovers, and Poseidon persuaded Hephaestus to free them in return for a guarantee that Ares would pay the adulterer's fine. Hephaestus states in The Odyssey that he would return Aphrodite to her father and demand back his bride price.

Goddess of Abundance and Fertility


  • Animals: Cows, Crabs, Crows, Cuckoos, Doves, Dragons, Peacocks, and Snakes.

  • Colors: Blue, Gold, Green, White, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Daedala and Heraean Games.

  • Food: Apple, Coconut, Pears, and Pomegranate.

  • Herbs: Iris, Jasmine, Myrrh, Orris, and Rose.

  • Incense: Jasmine, Myrrh, Patchouli, and Rose.

  • Magical Attributes: Childbirth, and Fertility.

  • Metal: Silver and Platinum.

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings:  All White Flowers, Apples, Honey, Incense, Perfume, and Pomegranates.

  • Planet: Venus

  • Plants: All White Flowers, Apple Blossom, Lilies, and Poppies.

  • Sabbats: Lammas

  • Stones: Amber, Citrine, Diamond, Garnet, Lapis Lazuli, Pearl, and Star Sapphire.

  • Symbols: Cuckoo,Diadem and Veil, Opium Poppy, Peacock, Pomegranate, and Scepter.

  • Trees: Apple, Oak, Pear, and Willow.


     Hera was a pre-Hellenic goddess, later said to be the wife of Zeus; sister of Demeter, Hades, Hestia, Poseidon, and Zeus. In Roman mythology, she is called Juno. Her four children by Zeus are Hephaestus, Hebe, Ares, and Ilithyia (Eileithyia). She was the daughter of Cronus and Rhea, according to Hesiod’s Theogony.


     Hera’s main function was as goddess of marriage and the sexual life of women. In many Greek myths she always appears at odds with her wandering husband Zeus, constantly persecuting his numerous mistresses and their children. Like Zeus, she was swallowed at birth by her father, Cronus, and rescued by Zeus, who later, in the form of a cuckoo, seduced her. Hera is portrayed in Greek and Roman art as a large, majestic woman, fully clad, wearing a diadem (in Greek archaic art sometimes a polos). Among her attributes are the crow, the cuckoo, the peacock (because she set the 100 eyes of the all-seeing Argus in its tail), and the pomegranate (symbol of fruitfulness).


     Hera was worshipped throughout Greece. Her most famous temples were at the Heraeum at Nemea in the Argolid, the great temple on the island of Samos, and the temple at Olympia. At her Greek festival, the Heraia, a shield was given as the prize in an athletic contest. Her most common Homeric epithet is “ox-eyed,” and she is also known as Parthenia, referring to her role as a bride. In Spenser’s poem Epithalamion he asks for the goddess’s blessing on his marriage. Hera also appears in Tennyson’s Oenone.y with.

God of Riches, Trade, Omens, and Luck


  • Animals: Cattle/Oxen, Guard Dogs, Hares, Hawks, Rams, Roosters, Snakes, and Tortoises.

  • Colors: Black, Copper, Gold, Grey, Purple, Red, Silver, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays: The Hermaea

  • Food: Strawberry and Olives.

  • Herbs: Lavender

  • Incense: Frankincense

  • Magical Attributes: Animal Husbandry, Astronomy and Astrology, Athletic Contests, Boundaries, Coins, Diplomacy, Guide of the Dead, Hospitality, Language, Luck, Magic, Riches, Roads and Travel, Thievery, Trade, Transitions, and Writing.

  • Metal: Copper, Silver, and Gold.

  • Musical Instrument: Lyre

  • Offerings: Coins, Dice, Feathers, Honey, Incense, Milk, Olives or Olive Oil, Strawberries, Turtle Shell, Wine, and Written Messages.

  • Planet: Mercury

  • Plants: Crocus

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Marble

  • Symbols: Caduceus, Talaria, and Winged Sandals.

  • Trees: Strawberry Tree


     Hermes is the winged herald and messenger of the Olympian gods. In addition, he is also a divine trickster, and the god of roads, flocks, commerce, and thieves. Hermes was the son of Zeus and Maia, the oldest of the seven Pleiades. He was born in a cave in Mount Cyllene in Arcadia at dawn. A precocious newborn, he invented the lyre and stole Apollo’s cattle on the very first day of his life.


     Hermes was the only Olympian capable of crossing the border between the living and the dead. Archaic artists portrayed Hermes as a mature bearded man. However, later on, he was represented as an athletically built nude youth, immediately recognizable by four attributes: a broad-brimmed hat (petasos), winged sandals (talaria), a purse, and a herald’s wand (kerykeion, or caduceus in Latin). Hermes’ wand – a short-winged staff, entangled by two identical serpents – had magical powers, bringing sleep upon people, or rousing them from it. It is remarkably similar and frequently confused with the Rod of Asclepius, which is why Hermes’ wand is often incorrectly used as a symbol of medicine.


     By all accounts, Hermes was a darling of the gods. Artemis supposedly taught him how to hunt and Pan how to play the pipes. He was the one who guided Persephone back to her mother, Demeter. Above all, Hermes was awfully close with his father, acting in many of his affairs as Zeus’ wingman. Most famously, he beheaded the hundred-eyed giant Argus Panoptes, previously sent by Hera to closely watch over Zeus’ love interest Io. Even though associated with fertility, it seems that Hermes never married, and had relatively few famous consorts and children. Aphrodite bore him Hermaphrodites and possibly Tyche, Herse – Cephalus, and the nymph Dryope – Pan. Later poets sometimes link Hermes with Peitho or Hecate. Once, Hermes and Apollo fell in love simultaneously with the virgin Chione and slept with her on the very same day. Later, Chione gave birth to twins. Philammon took after Apollo and became a famous musician. Unsurprisingly, Hermes’ son Autolycus became a trickster and a thief. Poets say that not few of his traits were inherited by his grandson: Odysseus.

Goddess of Hearth Fire and Domestic Life


  • Animals: Donkeys and Pigs.

  • Colors: Gold and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Anything Home-Made.

  • Herbs: Basil, Chamomile, and Yarrow.

  • Incense: Chamomile, Frankincense, and Myrrh.

  • Magical Attributes: Architecture, Domestic Life, Family, Hearth, and Home.

  • Metal: Brass and Silver

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Food Burned in a Fireplace, Fresh Fruit, Oil, Pork, and Sweet Wine.

  • Planet: None

  • Plants: Angel’s Trumpet, Daisy, Goldenrod, Hollyhock, Hyssop, Poppy, and Purple Cornflower.

  • Sabbats: Yule and Imbolc.

  • Stones: Amethyst, Clear Quartz, Garnet, and Sodalite.

  • Symbols: Fire, The Hearth, and Kettle.

  • Trees: Chaste Tree


     Hestia, Goddess of hearth and home beloved and revered as the center of Ancient Greek life, is veiled by the mists which shroud her mystery. Unlike her sisters who are so visibly part of the Olympic Pantheon, Hestia is not recounted and lauded through mythological stories, nor is her image emblazoned on ceramic and wall. Hestia was instead made visible in the flame that sanctified the living space, as well as the temples, and city. Where her flame burned there was sacredness. She provided light, warmth, and the means of cooking food. She was holiness and life.


     Hestia, the first born daughter of Rhea and Cronos, was the oldest sister of the first-generation of Olympians making her one of the original twelve. She was one of the first swallowed by Cronos and last to be regurgitated. She did not sit on Mount Olympus and so her seat was finally usurped by her brother, Dionysus, God of Wine. While being the least known of the Olympians she was the most honored receiving the best offerings. For without Hestia’s presence, a house was not a home. When a bride, for example, was married in ancient Greece her mother would carry a torch lit from the maiden’s home to the home of the newly made wife to consecrate and bless the new household. Too, a child was accepted into a Greek family on the fifth day after birth by carrying the infant around the hearth flame.

Goddess of Balance, Justice, Retribution, and Vengeance


  • Animals: Griffins and Stags.

  • Colors: Black, Blue, Brown, Gold, and Red.

  • Festivals/Holidays: The Nemesia

  • Food: Apple

  • Herbs: Angelica, Bay, Chamomile, Dill, Fennel, Rosemary, Rue, St. John’s Wort.

  • Incense: Frankincense, Heliotrope, Lavender, and Orchid.

  • Magical Attributes: Divine Retribution and Revenge.

  • Mineral: Gold

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Apples, Blades, Goose Feathers, and Weighing Scales.

  • Planet: Moon and Sun.

  • Plants: Marigold, Mullein, and Orange Sunflowers.

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Amethyst, Bloodstone, Diamond, Jade, Jet, and Nemesis Stones.

  • Symbols: Branch laden with Apples, Hourglass, Rein, Scales, The Wheel, Whip or Sword, and Wings.

  • Trees: Apple Tree


     Nemesis is the Greek Goddess of balance, justice, retribution, and vengeance. Evil deeds, undeserved good fortune, and crimes that go unpunished or that bring rewards, may invoke her wrath and remorseless justice and retribution. Nemesis measures out happiness and unhappiness making sure that happiness does not occur excessively. If you are arrogant before the Gods, she will mete out the punishment.  What goes around comes around and you can be sure that Nemesis will use her powers against those who deserve it. It is believed that Nemesis is the daughter of Nyx the dark Goddess of night and Erebus, God of the Underworld. Her closest companion is Aidos, the Goddess of Shame. Greek prophesies suggests that when humans become more wicked than good, Nemesis and Aidos will abandon the Earth and then all hell will break loose! Nemesis is usually depicted as a winged, woman dressed in white. She can also be seen as a Griffon holding a Wheel of Fortune.

God of Nature, Lust, and Sex


  • Animals: Goats

  • Colors: Brown, Green, Pink, and Purple.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Grapes, Meats, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Bay, Blessed Thistle, Hibiscus, Jasmine, and Yarrow.

  • Incense: Musk, Myrrh, and Patchouli.

  • Magical Attributes: Ecstatic Music, Fertility, Fields, Flocks, Forest, Hunting, Lust, Sex, Shepherds, Wild Goats, and Wild Nature.

  • Metal: Copper

  • Musical Instrument: Pan Pipes

  • Offerings: Honey Cakes, Music, and Wine.

  • Planet: Mars

  • Plants: , Broom, Foxglove, and Rose.

  • Sabbats: Beltane

  • Stones: Carnelian, Obsidian, and Sunstone.

  • Symbols: Acorn, Oak Leaves, and Pan Pipe.

  • Trees:  Olive and Pine.


     Pan is the spirit of wild, irrepressible life essence. He is a Great God of tremendous power, the Lord of fertility, wild nature, ecstatic music, wild goats, shepherds, flocks, and hunters. He bestows musical skill.  Pan’s nature of one of paradox.  He was an uncivilized god in a civilized world. Much like the goat, which could never truly be domesticated, Pan always retained a bit of his feral nature. Though he lived wild and free in the mountains of Arcadia, he also liked the comforts of civilization such as wine, women, and song. Maybe the reason that Pan was often referred to as “The God heard, but not seen” is because of His love for wildness and freedom and his longing for civilization and its benefits. Pan is most often heard through his pan pipe than actually seen.


     Pan’s parentage is unclear, he is said to be the son of Hermes or Dionysus and a Nymph or possibly the son of Penelope, the wife of Odysseus. The legend is that while Odysseus was away, Penelope slept with 108 suitors, and became pregnant with Pan. That idea would certainly explain Pan’s prodigious eroticism.


     Pan may be much older than the Olympians, for He is said to have given Artemis her hunting dogs and taught Apollo the art of prophecy. Pan is a sexual God. He is often depicted with an erect phallus chasing a nymph and is associated with “panic sex” or lustful sex used solely for physical satisfaction. Pan is not a God to petition for love, He is a God of lust. Pan has as many lovers as often as possible. There were never any long-term girlfriends for him.

Goddess of Spring, Fertility, and Queen of The Underworld


  • Animals: Bats, Bees, Deer, Monkeys, Parrots, Pigs, and Rams.

  • Colors: Black, Blue, Green, Magenta, Purple, and Yellow.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Pomegranate

  • Herbs: Lavender, Mint, Parsley, and Poppy.

  • Incense: Almond, Anything Floral, Bergamot, Hyacinth, Narcissus, Pomegranate, and Vanilla.

  • Magical Attributes: Fertility, Grain, Spring, and Vegetation.

  • Metal: Copper

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Bread, Cakes, Cookies, Flowers, Grains, Honey, Honey Wine, Honeyed Milk, Infused Water, Milk, Pomegranates Seeds and Juice, and Spring Water.

  • Planet: Earth

  • Plants: Asphodel, Daisy, Iris, Lily, Lily of the Valley, Maidenhair Fern, Narcissus, Roses, and Violet.

  • Sabbats: Lammas, Mabon, and Samhain.

  • Stones: Agate, ,Amethyst, Citrine, Coral, Green Tourmaline, Jasper, Obsidian, Onyx, Peridot, Pink Tourmaline, Quartz, Sapphire, and Topaz.

  • Symbols: Crown, Flower Crown, Pomegranates, Rivers, Sheaves of Grain, Springs, and Wildflowers.

  • Trees: Black poplar, Cypress, and Willow.


     The Goddess Persephone is a paradox. At Beltane, Persephone is an innocent maiden, the harbinger of spring, new beginnings, and joyful youth. At Mabon, Persephone is the Dark Queen of the Underworld, Goddess of the soul who possesses it’s dark and frightening mysteries. As maiden, she brings forth new life when the Earth begins to waken from a long winter’s sleep. As Dark Queen, Persephone rules the Underworld, and with her sickle, is prepared to reap what has been sown.


     Persephone is the daughter of Demeter and Zeus, and was conceived long before Zeus married the jealous and vengeful Hera. As a child she was called Kore or Cora, meaning young maiden. She was a very pretty child who grew into a lovely young woman. One day she caught the eye of Zeus’s brother Hades, who wanted to take her as his wife. Hades knew that Demeter would never agree to their marriage, so he went behind Demeter’s back and made arrangements with Zeus to abduct and marry Persephone. One day while Persephone was in a meadow picking narcissus flowers, the earth opened up, and Hades kidnapped her. She had come to care for her new husband and was torn between loving Hades and missing her mother. She missed the light and warmth of the upper world, yet her new husband was loving and attentive, she was enjoying her role as Queen of the Underworld, and she didn’t want to leave Hades forever. Persephone decides to eat six seeds of a pomegranate, knowing full well that eating the food of the dead in the Underworld, will prevent her from returning to the upper world forever.


     Persephone was a gracious hostess to guests who visited the Underworld and was willing to help them with their problems. When Psyche asked for help to reunite with her husband, Persephone gave her a magic beauty potion. Persephone loaned Hercules the three-headed dog Cerberus, guardian of the gates of the Underworld so that Hercules could complete the Twelve Labours that he had been assigned to atone for his wife’s death.

God of the Ocean


  • Animals: Bulls, Dolphins, Horses, and Sea Horses.

  • Colors: Blue, Green, Purple, Silver, and White.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: All Fruit and Veggie with high water content, Honey, Milk, and Water.

  • Herbs: Honeysuckle, Lavender, and Water Lilly.

  • Incense: Hibiscus, Jasmine, Lotus, Sandalwood, Vanilla, and Violet.

  • Magical Attributes: Drought, Earthquakes, Oceans, Psyche Work, Seas, Shadow Work, Storms, and Water.

  • Mineral: Gold and Silver.

  • Musical Instrument: None

  • Offerings: Honey, Milk, Ocean Sand, Poetry, Salt Water, and Seashells.

  • Planet: Neptune

  • Plants: Wild Celery

  • Sabbats: Litha

  • Stones: Aquamarine, Amethyst, Azurite, Blue Tourmaline, Celestite, Chrysocolla, Coral, Mother-of-Pearl, Pink Tourmaline, Sapphire, Selenite, and Sodalite.

  • Symbols: Bull, Dolphin, Fish, Horse, and Trident.

  • Trees: Mangrove and Willow.


     Poseidon is the god of the sea, earthquakes, and horses. He is distinguished from Pontus, the personification of the sea and the oldest Greek divinity of the waters. The name Poseidon means either “husband of the earth” or “lord of the earth.” Traditionally, he was a son of Cronus (the youngest of the 12 Titans) and of Cronus’s sister and consort Rhea, a fertility goddess. Poseidon was a brother of Zeus, the sky god and chief deity of ancient Greece, and of Hades, god of the underworld. When the three brothers deposed their father, the kingdom of the sea fell by lot to Poseidon. His weapon and main symbol was the trident, perhaps once a fish spear.


     According to the Greek poet Hesiod, Poseidon’s trident, like Zeus’s thunderbolt and Hades’ helmet, was fashioned by the three Cyclopes. As the god of earthquakes, Poseidon was also connected to dry land, and many of his oldest places of worship in Greece were inland, though these were sometimes centered on pools and streams or otherwise associated with water. In this aspect, he was known as enosichthon and ennosigaios (“earth-shaker”) and was worshipped as asphalios (“stabilizer”). As the god of horses, Poseidon is thought likely to have been introduced to Greece by the earliest Hellenes, who also introduced the first horses to the country about the 2nd century BCE.


     Poseidon came into conflict with a variety of figures in land disputes. Notable among these was a contest for sovereignty over Attica, which he lost to the goddess Athena. Despite losing, Poseidon was also worshipped there, particularly at Colonus (as hippios, “of horses”).

God of Lightning, the Sky, and King of the Gods


  • Animals: Bulls and Eagles.

  • Colors: Gold, Purple, and Red.

  • Festivals/Holidays:

  • Food: Almond, Apple, Artichoke, Fish, Honey Cake, Meats, Milk, Fruit, and Wine.

  • Herbs: Allspice, Bay Laurel, and Dill.

  • Incense: Cinnamon and Jasmine.

  • Magical Attributes: Fertility, Honor, Justice, Light, Rulership, Sky, Sovereignty, Weather, and Wisdom.

  • Metal: Gold

  • Musical Instrument:

  • Offerings: Cakes/Pastries, Eagle Feathers, Fish, Fruit, Incense, Laurel, Meat, and Wine.

  • Planet: Jupiter

  • Plants: Clover, Holly, Honeysuckle, and Lily of the Valley.

  • Sabbats:

  • Stones: Diamond, Jet, Opal, and Topaz.

  • Symbols: Oak Tree, Thunder, and Thunderbolt.

  • Trees: Holm Oak and Olive.


     Zeus is the god of the sky, lightning and the thunder in Ancient Greek religion and legends, and ruler of all the gods on Mount Olympus. Zeus is the sixth child of Kronos and Rhea, king, and queen of the Titans. His father, Kronos, swallowed his children as soon as they were born for fear of a prophecy which foretold that one of them would overthrow him. When Zeus was born, Rhea hid him in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete, giving Kronos a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes to swallow instead. When Zeus was older he went to free his brothers and sisters; together with their allies, the Hekatonkheires and the Elder Cyclopes, Zeus and his siblings fought against the Titans in a ten-year war known as the Titanomachy. At the end of the war, Zeus took Kronos' scythe and cut him into pieces, throwing his remains into Tartarus. He then became the king of gods.


     The supreme deity of the Greek pantheon, Zeus was universally respected and revered throughout Ancient Greece; the ancient Olympic Games were held at the site of Olympia every four years in honor of him. Highly temperamental, Zeus was armed with the mighty thunderbolt, said to be the most powerful weapon among the gods. Zeus was married to his sister, Hera, though he was infamous for his infidelity, taking on an almost innumerable amount of lovers and consorts, both mortal and divine including Karis and Hercules' mother. Zeus was known for throwing thunderbolts at people. The god of honor and justice, Zeus was the one who both established and enforced law, and served as the standard for kings to follow, ensuring they did not abuse the power of their position.

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