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The Wiccan Deities

     Wiccan views of divinity are generally theistic, and revolve around a Goddess and a Horned God, thereby being generally dualistic. In traditional Wicca, as expressed in the writings of Gerald Gardner and Doreen Valiente, the emphasis is on the theme of divine gender polarity, and the God and Goddess are regarded as equal and opposite divine cosmic forces. In some newer forms of Wicca, such as feminist or Dianic Wicca, the Goddess is given primacy or even exclusivity. In some forms of traditional witchcraft that share a similar duotheistic theology, the Horned God is given precedence over the Goddess.


     Some Wiccans are polytheists, believing in many different deities taken from various Pagan pantheons, while others would believe that, in the words of Dion Fortune, "all the Goddesses are one Goddess, and all the Gods one God". Some Wiccans are both duotheistic and polytheistic, (and sometimes a combination of duotheism, polytheism, and pantheism), in that they honor diverse pagan deities while reserving their worship for the Wiccan Goddess and Horned God, whom they regard as the supreme deities. (This approach is not dissimilar to ancient pagan pantheons where one divine couple, a god and goddess, were seen as the supreme deities of an entire pantheon.) Some see divinity as having a real, external existence; others see the Goddesses and Gods as archetypes or thought-forms within the collective consciousness.


     According to several 20th century witches, most notably Gerald Gardner, the "father of Wicca", the witches' God and Goddess are the ancient gods of the British Isles: a Horned God of hunting, death and magic who rules over an after-world paradise (often referred to as the Summerland), and a goddess, the Great Mother (who is simultaneously the Eternal Virgin and the Primordial Enchantress), who gives regeneration and rebirth to souls of the dead and love to the living. The Goddess is especially connected to the Moon and stars and the sea, while the Horned God is connected to the Sun and the forests. Gardner explains that these are the tribal gods of the witches, just as the Egyptians had their tribal gods Isis and Osiris and the Jews had Elohim; he also states that a being higher than any of these tribal gods is recognized by the witches as Prime Mover, but remains unknowable, and is of little concern to them.


     The Goddess is often seen as having a triple aspect; that of the maiden, mother and crone. The God is traditionally seen as being the Horned God of the woods. A key belief in Wicca is that the gods are able to manifest in personal form, either through dreams, as physical manifestations, or through the bodies of Priestesses and Priests. Gardnerian Wicca as a denomination is primarily concerned with the priestess or priest's relationship to the Goddess and God. The Lady and Lord (as they are often called) are seen as primal cosmic beings, the source of limitless power, yet they are also familiar figures who comfort and nurture their children, and often challenge or even reprimand them.

     Now that we have a little background of where they come from, let's begin.

The Star Goddess


     Dryghten, an Old English term for The Lord, is the term used by Patricia Crowther to refer to the universal pantheistic deity in Wicca. Gerald Gardner had initially called it, according to the cosmological argument, the Prime Mover, a term borrowed from Aristotle, but he claimed that the witches did not worship it, and considered it unknowable. It was referred to by Scott Cunningham by the term used in Neo-Platonism, "The One"; Many Wiccans whose practice involves study of the Kabbalah also regard the Gods and Goddesses they worship as being aspects or expressions of the ineffable supreme One. Some feminist Wiccans such as Starhawk use the term Star Goddess to describe the universal pantheistic deity that created the cosmos, and regard her as a knowable Deity that can and should be worshiped. Contrary to the popular notion that the term "Star Goddess" comes from the Charge of the Goddess, a text sacred to many Wiccans, it actually originates from the Anderson Feri Tradition of (non-Wiccan) Witchcraft- of which Starhawk was an initiate. Within the Feri tradition the "Star Goddess" is the androgynous point of all creation - from which all things (including the dual God and Goddess) emanate.

The God of Fertility, The Forest, The Hunt, The Lord of Life and Death

The Horned God

  • Animals: Horned Animals of the Forest.

  • Colors: Dark Green, Gold, and Silver.

  • Festivals/Holidays: Yule

  • Food: Berries, Cheeses, Fruits, Grains, Meat, and Nuts.

  • Herbs: Cinnamon and Rosemary.

  • Incense: Cinnamon, Musk, Pine, Rosemary, and Sandalwood.

  • Magical Attributes: Hunting, The Life Cycle, Nature, Sexuality, and Wilderness.

  • Mineral: Gold and Silver.

  • Musical Instrument: Pipes.

  • Offerings: Acorns, Fruit, Grain, Mistletoe, and Oak Leaves.

  • Plants: Ivy, Mistletoe, Oak, and Valerian.

  • Planet: Mercury.

  • Stone: Amber, Jet, Peridot, and Rock Crystal.

  • Symbols: Horned Animals, Horns, and The Sun.

  • Tree: Juniper and Oak.


     The first known representation of a Horned Deity is in the Caverne des Trois Freres in Ariege created during the Paleolithic period. The wall painting depicts a man wearing an animal skin with stag antlers on his head. The figure is thought to represent God incarnate performing a sacred dance of sympathetic magic to increase the number of animals for the tribe to hunt. Representations of a Horned God were common in Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Egypt.

The Egyptian Horned God Osiris

  • The giver of all fertility who was often depicted with the horns of a bull. Osiris was believed to be incarnate, in a succession of sacred bulls, and worshiped in that form as the God Apis.


The Greek Horned God Pan

  • The most well-known Horned God who has the body of a man and the head of a goat. Pan, the bearded goat foot God leads a procession of dancing of satyrs and nymphs while he plays the pipes that bear his name. His worship was so hated by the church that his image was used to describe the "Devil" and they called him the Lord of all Evil.


The Greek Horned God Dionysus

  • Another Greek Horned God is a creature of mystery, his very essence an enigma. His realm is shadowy, and his followers flirt with madness, drunkenness, and death. He is the patron deity of the Bacchantes, those wild women who were said to tear living animals apart in their trance of divine possession. He is the god of wine and intoxication that merges the drinker with the deity. He is also a "Slain God", that is a God who dies and is reborn. For a Greek God to die was unthinkable, how can an immortal die? Through the death and rebirth of the God, the Cult of Dionysus, like that of the Goddess Demeter brought forth the mystery of rebirth to their followers.

The Greatest God of Western Europe Cernunnos

  • This Gods’ name simply means "the horned". Cernunnos is depicted as a mature bearded man with stag antlers wearing a torc. A torc implies nobility in the Celtic culture. Cernunnos often carries or wears other torcs in his hands or on his antlers and also carries a purse of coins. He is usually portrayed seated and cross-legged, in a meditative or shamanic position. Cernunnos is nearly always depicted with animals and is sometimes called the "Lord of the Animals", the "Lord of Wild Things" or "Lord of the Hunt". He also associates with an animal that is unique to him, a serpent with the horns of a ram. The serpent's symbolism is transformation and the horns symbolize fertility and strength. The earliest known probable depiction of Cernunnos was found at Val Camonica in Italy, dating from the 4th century BCE, while the best-known depiction is on the Gundestrup Cauldron found on Jutland, dating to the 1st century BCE. On an altar found under the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris is a large image of Cernunnos dating from 14 CE. This site was so sacred that the cathedral was built over it to entice worship of the new religion.

The Masculine and Feminine Aspects of the Divine

The Lord and Lady

     When Wiccans want to honor both the masculine and feminine aspects of the Divine, you will sometimes hear us refer to them as a pair—the Lord and Lady. This approach emphasizes the dual nature of Divinity and how these two Wiccan deities make up a larger whole. Additionally, within covens, the High Priest and Priestess often take on the role of the Lord and Lady within ritual spell-work.


The God

  • In Wicca, the God is seen as the masculine form of divinity, and the polar opposite, and equal, to the Goddess. The God is traditionally seen as the Horned God, an archetypal deity with links to the Celtic Cernunnos, English folkloric Herne the Hunter, Greek Pan, Roman Faunus and Indian Pashupati. This was the God whom Gerald Gardner presented as the old God of the ancient Witches, and who was supported by Margaret Murray's theory of the pan-European witch religion, which has largely been discredited. Horns are traditionally a sacred symbol of male virility, and male gods with horns or antlers were common in pagan religious iconography throughout the ancient world.


The Goddess

  • Traditionally in Wicca, the Goddess is seen as the Triple Goddess, meaning that she is the maiden, the mother, and the crone. The mother aspect, the Mother Goddess, is perhaps the most important of these, and it was her that Gerald Gardner and Margaret Murray claimed was the ancient Goddess of the Witches. Certain Wiccan traditions are Goddess-centric; this view differs from most traditions in that most others focus on a duality of goddess and god.

The All

The One

     While the concept of The One is important in the Wiccan religion, they don’t necessarily worship or invoke it—it’s not that kind of deity. In fact, it’s not much of deity at all. Rather, it’s an acknowledgement that all manifestations of life and energy in our universe—from humans, to plants, to planets, to spirits, and even deities—come from a singular, sacred, and Divine source. Think of it like this—within the ocean, countless individual waves rise and fall every day. While each of those waves may be unique from every other wave, they all arise out of the same ocean. They all come from the same source. In the same way, everything in existence is like a spiritual wave in a vast, cosmic ocean. Although we might differ superficially, the ultimate source of our being is the same—The One. If you’re completely new to Wicca, you don’t need to be terribly concerned with this idea of The One. It’s a concept that is challenging and complex even for the most experienced of witches. For now, all that’s important is that you realize that within Wicca, like many other faiths, we believe that all life stems from this singular, Divine origin.

The Maiden The Mother The Crone

The Triple Goddess

     The Triple Goddess is one of the most important and iconic Wiccan deities. While Wiccans may worship any number of different deities, the Triple Goddess is almost always front and center—she is the primary representation of Divine feminine power for us. she is strongly associated with the moon and its changing phases. Each of these three moon phases (waxing, full, and waning) correspond to a different representation of the Goddess. These representations have their own individual attributes and meanings, but they also work together to create a unified whole between them. We can call upon a particular manifestation of the Triple Goddess when the occasion calls for it, but we also worship her as a singular force—as a representation of all the many facets of Divine womanhood.


The three particular manifestations of the Triple Goddess are:

  • The Maiden

  • The Mother

  • The Crone.

  • Each of these depicts a witch in the different stages of her life:



  • First, we have the Maiden. She is the Triple Goddess as a young, beautiful woman. Because she is just starting out in life, the Maiden is strongly associated with new beginnings and open-ended possibilities. She is also a powerful representation of purity and consecration, which is why Wiccans often call upon the Maiden specifically when working a blessing or purification ritual.

  1. Artemis: (Greek) eternal Virgin Goddess, Lady of the forests and hunting, and also of birth.

  2. Blodewedd: (Celtic) This Spring Goddess was created by magic from nine spring flowers to be the wife of Llew Llaw. This got around the curse Arianhod had placed upon her son preventing him from taking a human wife.

  3. Brigid: (Celtic) In her maiden aspect this Goddess is honored at the festival of Imbolc which celebrates the first stirrings of Spring.

  4. Chalchihuitlicue: Wife of Tlaloc, the God of Rains for the Aztec, was called the Precious Jeweled Lady, and had in her aspects associated with the Maiden like flowers, spring, and the beauty of youth.

  5. Diana: (Roman) Goddess of the Crescent Moon and the Hunt. She is the virgin Goddess of childbirth and women. Oak groves are sacred to Diana.

  6. Flora: (Roman) The Goddess of flowering plants, especially those that bore fruit. Her festival, the Floralia, took place in April or early May and was marked with dancing, drinking, and flowers.

  7. Freya: (Nordic) This Nordic fertility Goddess is linked with spring growth and flowers.

  8. Hebe: (Greek) The Goddess of eternal youth and Spring.

  9. Kore: (Greek) Kore is an alternative name for the Greek Goddess Persephone.

  10. Ostara: (Celtic) Painted eggs and white rabbits are sacred to Ostara, the Celtic Goddess of Spring, fertility, and rebirth. Her symbols have been incorporated into the Christian celebration of Easter.

  11. Ninniane: Also called Nimue, in the Arthurian myth. She was Merlin's protege and was courted by him. Nimue locked Merlin in a cave to ward off his constant advances.

  12. Parvati: (Hindu)  Maiden of affirmations and love, she became Shiva's, the Lord of Destruction, mate.

  13. Persephone or  Proserpina: Persephone means maiden. She was the daughter of Demeter, who was kidnapped by Hades and reigns with him in the Underworld, for the dark half of the year. Spring arrives when Persephone leaves Hades and joins her Mother.

  14. Rhiannon: (Celtic) Maiden who is the "Divine Queen of the Faeries".  She is a Goddess of movement and change, who remains steadfast and comforting in times of crisis and loss.



  • Next, is the Mother. At this point, the Triple Goddess has entered full womanhood and becomes a figure of maternal protection and life-giving power. Fertility rites are often performed in honor of the Mother, and she is also frequently called upon during a Wiccaning—which is the blessing of a new child. Guidance and love are the dominant attributes for this Goddess, and we frequently turn to her in the same way we would a real mother.

  1. Aka: (Turkish) Ancient Mother Goddess.

  2. Aphrodite: (Greek) Represented fertility.

  3. Arianrhod: (Welsh) Associated with fertility

  4. Artemis: (Greek) Despite being a virgin goddess she also presides over childbirth due to the ease of her own birth.

  5. Bast: (Egyptian) Bast the cat-headed Goddess was associated with both fertility and childbirth.

  6. Ceres: (Roman) Goddess of crops and agriculture.

  7. Corn Mother: (Native American) Responsible for the fertility of the land and people.

  8. Cybele: (Roman) Cybele was the goddess of fertility based on Anatolian Goddess Kybele.

  9. Danu: The mythic Mother Goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danann, the Celtic tribes that first invaded Ireland.

  10. Demeter: (Greek) The Goddess of grain and bringer of fertility to the earth.

  11. Frigg: (Nordic) Frigg was the Odin wife she protected a man's marriage and made him fertile. Her name was invoked to bring children into a conjugal union.

  12. Gaia: (Greek) Ancient Greek mother goddess who gave birth to the land and the Titans.

  13. Hathor: (Egyptian)  Mistress of the West, who welcomed the dead into the next life. Sky-goddess of love, music, dance, foreign lands, and fertility who helped women in childbirth, as well as the patron goddess of miners. Hathor is often depicted wearing a headdress made of a pair of cow horns with a sun disk.

  14. Hera: (Greek) Goddess of women and marriage. Sacred to her are the peacock and the cow.

  15. Isis: (Egyptian) Goddess who was worshiped as the ideal mother and wife and as the patron of nature and magic. She was the friend of slaves, sinners, artisans, and the downtrodden, and she listened to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats, and rulers. Isis is often depicted as the mother of Horus; Isis is also known as the protector of the dead and Goddess of children

  16. Juno: (Roman) Often called upon by infertile women.

  17. Macha: (Irish) Fertility goddess who primarily concerned with male virility.

  18. Nile Goddess: One of the prehistoric fertility Goddesses worshipped in the Nile Delta. She had the head of a bird.

  19. Rhea: (Greek) Replaced her mother Gaia as the earth and fertility goddess. She gave birth to the first Olympians

  20. Venus: (Roman) Roman equivalent to Aphrodite. She represented one of the main fertility Goddesses.



  • Finally, we have the Crone, which is a title sometimes given to an aged and experienced witch. While some people associate old age with frailty and weakness, a witch is at the height of her power as she steps into the role of the Crone. This is why the Crone of the Triple Goddess is associated with spiritual wisdom and intuition. She is who we turn to when we seek knowledge beyond the physical world—she is a source of psychic development, prophecy, divination, and dream interpretation.

  1. Annis: (Celtic) A frightening old woman, keeper of wisdom and old ways.

  2. Badb: (Irish) A shape-shifting warrior Goddess who symbolizes the cycles of life and death, wisdom, and inspiration.

  3. Baba Yaga: (Russian) In Slavic mythology, she is the wild old woman; the witch; and mistress of magic.

  4. Hecate: (Greek) Goddess of the underworld and magic

  5. Ceridwen: (Celtic) The Keeper of the Cauldron.

  6. Cailleach:  (Celtic) The hag and destroyer Goddess who ruled over disease, death, wisdom, seasonal rites, and weather magic.

  7. Elli: (Nordic) Goddess of old age, she defeated Thor.

  8. Grandmother Spiderwoman: (Native American): An old wise woman who gave man the sun and fire. 

  9. Kali: (Indian) Goddess of destruction and rebirth.

  10. Kalma: (Finnish) Underworld Goddess of death and decay.

  11. Lara: (Roman) Mother of the dead

  12. Libitina: (Roman) Goddess of funerals and pyres.

  13. Lilith: (Hebrew) Adams first wife and guardian of women's mysteries.

  14. Macha: (Irish) The wild woman who battles against injustice to woman and children.

  15. Morrigan: (Celtic) Crow Goddess who understands the nature of death.

  16. Mother Holle: (German) The Wise Queen of Winter

  17. Nicneven: (Celtic) Goddess of Magic and winter.

  18. Nephthys: (Egyptian) A funerary Goddess associated with death, magic, and reincarnation.

  19. Sedna: (Inuit) Mistress of life and death

  20. Xochiquetzal: (Mexican) Goddess of the cycles of life celebrated on the Day Of the Dead.

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